Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Acute Renal Failure?
Rapid loss of renal function with progressive azotemia
What is azotemia?
Accumulation of nitrogenous waste products in the blood
What are the age related changes in kidney function?
Decline in GFR
Reduced clearance of drugs excreted: prolonged half life
Increased risk of fluid & electrolyte imbalance
What causes GFR to decline?
Decreased renal Vascularity
Decreased Cardiac Output
What causes reduced clearance of drugs excreted throught the kidneys?
Cardiac drugs(dig,procainamide)
Antibiotics(aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, cephalosporins)
Histamine H2 antagonists (cimetidine)
Antidiabetic agents (Chloropropamide)
Why is risk for F&E imbalance increased?
Decreased ability to concentrate urine and compensate for altered salt intake
Decreased effectiveness of ADH and reduced thirst response
Decreased K+ excretion due to lower aldosterone levels
What are the types of renal failure?
Intra renal
Post Renal
What is pre renal failure?
External factors that lead to decreased blood flow taht lead to reduced glomerular perfusion and filtration. 60-70% of cases.
Causes of pre-renal failure
Decreased Cardiac Output
Decreased peripheral vascular resistance
Decreased renovascular bloodflow
What causes oliguria?
Oliguria occurs when kidneys respond to decreased blood flow by activating R-A-A system
What leads to azotemia?
Poor renal perfusion
What is intra renal failure?
Results from conditions that cause direct damage to the tissue inside the kidney
What causes intra renal failure?
Prolonged ischemia
Exposure to nephrotoxins
Acute tubular necrosis
What causes ATN?
damaged tubules lead to interstitial edema
(necrotic cells block tubes)
Glomerular filtrate leaks back into plasma through holes in damaged tubules decreasing intratubular blood flow
what are the 4 phases of intra renal failure?