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9 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why is sleep deprivation considered an activation procedure?
24 to 36 hours of continuous waking time may stress a potentially epileptogenic brain so that abnormalities will appear in the waking EEG.
What type of epilepsy is most likely to show abnormalities during sleep?
Patients with complex partial seizures are more likely to show abnormalities in sleep. sleep should be a routine procedure for patients who have or are suspected of having seizures of any type.
What is hyperventilation (HV)?
Deep and rapid breathing usually for a period of 3 to 5 minutes. Used as an activation procedure; especially potent in activating absence seizures.
What are the clinical affects of hyperventilation (HV)?
HV causes respiratory alkalosis (decrease of co2 in the system). Clinically characterized by cerebral symptoms including dizziness and even loss of consciousness; also by peripheral systems such as tingling especially in the hands and feet and around the mouth.
What electrographic changes are seen during hyperventilation (HV)?
Normal responses consist of generalized bilaterally synchronous slow waves that begin soon after HV; often called a "build-up." Abnormal responses consist of asymmetrical responses and epileptiform discharges. Spike and wave discharges of 3 Hz are often activated by HV.
What are the contraindications to hyperventilation?
1) Recent cardiac illness
2) Recent stroke
3) Distressed breathing
4) Extreme hypertension
5) Subarachnoid hemorrhage
6) Sickle cell anemia
7) Moyamoya disease
Describe a photomyogenic (photomyoclonic) reponse.
A Photomyogenic (photomyclonic ) response to intermittent photic stimulation is characterized by brief, repetitive muscular spikes over the anterior regions of the head. The muscle potentials occur at the same rate as the photic stimulation and stop as soon as the photic stimulation is stopped.
Describe photic driving.
Photic driving is rhythmic activity elicited over the posterior head regions of the brain by repetitive photic stimulation at frequencies of about 5 to 10 Hz, often best seen around the patient's background alpha rhythm frequency.
Describe a photoparoxysmal (photoconvulsive) response.
A photoparoxysmal (photoconvulsive) response is an abnormal response to intermittent photic stimulation characterized by spike and wave complexes. The response may (sustained) or may not (unsustained) continue after the photic stimulation is stopped.