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13 Cards in this Set

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What are the primary system initialization stages and user environment stages in Mac OS X, and in what order do they start?
The primary system initialization stages are: firmware, booter, kernel, and system launchd (in that order). The primary user environment stages are loginwindow, user launchd, and user environment.
What are the visual and/or audible cues of the stages of system initialization?
Each stage is indicated by the following: firmware, startup chime or bright flash of the power-on light followed by a light gray screen on the primary display
What does the firmware do? What is the POST?
The firmware initializes the Mac’s hardware and locates the booter file on a system volume. The Power-On Self-Test (POST) checks for basic hardware functionality when your Mac powers on.
What role does the system launchd process serve during system startup?
The system launchd process is ultimately responsible for starting every system process. It also manages system initialization and starts the loginwindow process.
What items are automatically started by the system launchd during the system initialization process?
During system initialization the system launchd process automatically starts /System/Library/LaunchDaemons, /Library/LaunchDaemons, /Library/StartupItems (via SystemStarter), and the /etc/rc.local UNIX script if it exists.
What role does the loginwindow process serve in system startup?
The loginwindow process displays the login screen that allows the user to authenticate, and then sets up and manages the graphical interface user environment.
What is the difference between launch daemons, startup items, launch agents, and login items?
Launch daemons and startup items are opened during system initialization by the system launchd process on behalf of the root user. Launch agents and login items are opened during the initialization of the user environment by the user’s specific launchd process.
What happens during user logout?
During user logout the user’s loginwindow process does the following: requests that all user applications quit
What happens during system shutdown?
At system shutdown the loginwindow process logs all users out and then tells the kernel to quit all remaining system processes. Once the kernel quits all system processes, the Mac will shut down.
What is the difference between Safe Boot, Safe Mode, and Safe Login?
Safe Boot refers to when the system is starting up
Which items are not loaded when Mac OS X safe-boots?
When Mac OS X safe-boots, it will not load third-party KEXTs, third-party LaunchAgents, third-party LaunchDaemons, third-party StartupItems, third-party fonts, any user login items, or any user-specific LaunchAgents.
What keyboard combination is used to safe-boot Mac OS X?
A Safe Boot is initiated by holding down the Shift key during system startup.
How do you further resolve an issue that disappears when the Mac successfully safe-boots?
If an issue disappears when the Mac successfully safe-boots, then you must find and remove or quarantine the third-party startup resource that caused the issue. The best way to isolate the problematic item is to start up the Mac in verbose mode and then observe where the startup process fails. Verbose mode is initiated by holding down Command-V during system startup.