Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/50

Click to flip

50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Causes of Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia (8)
-Severe COPD
-Hypoxia
-Acute Coronary Syndrome
-Digoxin Toxicity
-Rheumatic Heart Disease
-Theophyline Toxicty
-Electrolyte Embalanaces
Nonmodifiable Cardiac Risk Factors (4)
-Heredity
-Race
-Gender
-Age
Modifiable Cardiac Risk Factors (7)
-High BP
-Elevated Serum Cholesterol Levels
-Tobacco Use
-Diabetes
-Physical inactivity
-Obesity
-Metabolic syndrome
Contributing Cardiac Risk Factors (4)
-Stress
-Inflammatory markers
-Psychosocial factors
-Alcohol intake
Patch-4-MD
-Pulmonary Embolism
-Acidosis
-Tension Pneumothorax
-Cardiac tamponade
-Hypovolemia
-Hypoxia
-Heat/Cold (hypo/hyperthermia)
-Hypo/Hyperkalemia (and other electrolytes)
-Myocardial infarction
-Drug Overdose/accidents
Five H's and 5 T's
-Hypovolemia
-Hypoxia
-Hypothermia
-Hypo/Hyperkalemia
-Hydrogen Ion (acidosis)
-Tamponade, Cardiac
-Tension Pneumothorax
-Thrombosis: lungs (massive P.E.)
-Thrombosis: Heart (actue coroary syndrome)
-Tablets/toxins: drug overdose
Upper Airway
-outside chest cavity--nose, nasal cavitities, pharynx, and larynx (warm, filter, humidify, protect lower airway surfaces)
Lower Airway
-organs in chest cavity
-includes trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, and lungs
-exchange of o2 and co2
Tidal Volume
-volume of air in and out of lungs during a normal breath
Minute Volume
-amount of air moved in and out of lungs in 1 minute (tidal volume X resp rate)
-change in tidal volume or resp rate will change minute volume
Right Coronary Artery
-RCA from right side of aorta, tavels along grove between Right atrium and right ventricle
-Blockage--inferior wall MI and/or AV nodal conduction disturbance
Left Coronary Artery
-from left side of aorta
-first part LCA, main left main blood to left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx)
-Blocked septal branch of LAD--Septal MI
-Diagonal branch LAD block--anterior wall MI
-LAD can result pump failure and/or conduction delays
-LCx circles around left side of heart, embedded in epicardium--blocked--Lateral wall MI
Properties of Cardiac Cells (4)
-automaticity
-Excitability (irritability)
-Conductivity
-Contractility
Depolarization of Cardiac Cells
-Change in cell membrane Na+ ions rush in thru fast Na+ channels.
-Calcium moves slowly in thru Ca+(2)channels
-inside of cell more positive
-Cell depolarizes, cardiac contraction occurs (innermost layer to outermost layer--endocardium to epicardium)
Repolarization of cardiac cells
-Fast Na+ channels close
-Ca+(2) channels close and potassium flows out of cell
-Active transport via sodium-potassium pump begins restoring K+ to inside and Na+ to outside
-happens gradually until cell repolarized
-from epicardium to endocardium
Lead I--positive, negative, view
-positive-Left arm
-negative-right arm
-view-Lateral
Lead II--Positive, negative, view
-(+)-Left leg
-(-)-Right arm
-view-Inferior
Lead III-Positive, negative, view
-(+)-left leg
-(-)-Right Arm
-view-Inferior
AVR (+), view
(+)-Right arm
-none
aVL (+), view
(+)-left arm
-lateral
aVF (+), view
(+) left leg
-inferior
V1 View
V2 View
-Septum
-Septum
V3 View
V4 View
Anterior
Anterior
V5 View
V6 View
-Lateral
-Lateral
Abnormal Q Wave
-Pathologic- more than 0.04 (1 small box) and more than one third the height of the R wave in that lead
QRS duration
-0.06 to 0.10 (<.10)
P Wave (+) in which leads
-I
-II
-aVF
-V2 to V6
PR interval
-0.12 to 0.20
QT Interval
-0.38
T wave
-ventricular repolarization
-Upright all leads except aVR, positive or negative Leads III and V1
-inverted suggest myocardial ischemia
-tall, pointed (peaked)=hyperkalemia
-Low amplitude T = hypokalemia
Absolute Refractory Period
-effective refractory period
-Onset of the QRS to Peak of T wave
-myocardial cells will not respond to further stimulation
Relative Refractory Period
-vulnerable period
-downslope of T wave
-some cardiac cells have repolarized to their threshold potential and can be stimulated to respond (stronger than normal impulse)
Supernormal period
-after relative refractory period
-weaker than normal impulse can cause depolarization
-end of T wave, possible for cardiac dysrhythmias to develop during this period.
Causes of Sinus Tach
-Exercise, hypoxia
-Fever, Pain
-Fear and anxiety
-CHF, Acute MI
-Infection, Sympathetic stimulation
-Shock, dehydration, hypovolemia
-P.E., Hyperthyroidism
-Medications eg:epi, atropine
-Caffenine beverages
-nictoine
-Drugs eg: cocaine, amphetamines, cannabis
Causes of Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia
-Hypoxia, stress
-Overexertion, Anxiety
-Caffeine, smoking
-Sleep deprivation
-Medications
Causes of Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm
-Digitalis toxicity
-Cocaine toxicity
-Subarachnoid hemorrhage
-Acute Myocarditis
-Hypertensive Heart disease
-dilated cardiomyopathy
Causes of Ventricular Tachycardia
-Acute Coronary syndromes
-Cardiomyopathy
-Tricyclic antidepressant overdose
-digitalis toxicity
-Valvular heart disease
-Cocaine abuse
-Mitral Valve prolapse
-Acid-Base Imbalance
-Trauma (myocardial contusion)
-Electrolyte imbalance (hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypomanesemia)
Endotracheal Medications
-Naloxone
-atropine
-Vasopressin
-Epinephrine
-Lidocaine
Sympathetic Stimulation Terms
-sympathomimetic
-Sympathetic agonist
-Adrenergic
-Adrenergic Agonist
Sympathetic Inhibition Terms
-Sympatholytic
-Adrenergic blocker
-Sympathetic blocker
-Antiadrenergic
-Sympathetic antagonist
Parasympathetic Stimulation Terms
-Parasympathomimetic
-Parasympathetic agonist
-Cholinergic
-Cholinergic agonist
Parasympathetic Inhibition Terms
-Parasympatholytic
-Cholinergic blocker
-Parasympathetic blocker
-Anticholinergic
-Parasympathetic antagonist
-vagolytic
Chronotrope
Affects the heart rate
-Positive Chronotrope= Increase H.R.
-Negative Chronotrope = decrease H.R.
Inotrope
A substance that affects myocardial contractility
-Positive inotrope = increase force of contraction
-Negative inotrope = decrease force of contraction
Dromotrope
affects AV conduction velocity
-Positive dromotrope = increase AV conduction velocity
-Negative Dromotrope = decrease conducation velocity
Preload
-pressure/volume in the left ventricle at the end of diastole
Afterload
-pressure or resistance against which the heart must pump
agonist
-produces predictable response (stimulates action)
antagonist
-exerts an action opposite to another (blocks action)
Medications in Acute Coronary Synromes
MONA
-Morphine
-Oxygen
-Nitroglycerin
-Aspirin