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133 Cards in this Set

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What is the AETIOLOGY of halitosis: Sources in the mouth?
*Poor oral hygiene
*Peridontal diseade
*Throat infections
*Impacted food
*Coating on the tongue
What is the AETIOLOGY of halitosis: Sources from systemic disorders?
*Peptic ulcer (assoc with infection)
*Lung infection
*Liver/Kidney disease
*Bacterial overgrowth of intestines
*Diabetes mellitus
*Cancer
Name 2 treatment strategies for halitosis:
1. Maintain oral hygiene
2. Support liver and digestive function
3. Support oral immunity and treat infections
4. Others (stop smoking, see dentist, consider nutritional deficiencies, connsider sinus or upper respiratory conditions)
Treatment strategy for haltosis:
1. Maintain oral hygiene
What would this involve?
Brush & floss.
Gargle tea tree oil & water.
Treatment strategy for haltosis:
2. Support liver and digestive function
What would this involve?
* Increase fibre & water intake.
* Digestive enz's or apple cider vinegar.
* 4 R's
* Check for food intollerances
* Liver detox nutrients.
* Treat Achlorhydria
Treatment strategy for haltosis:
3. Support oral immunity and treat infections
What would this involve?
* Vit C & zinc losenges
* Caprillic acid or herbal antimicrobial, antifungal, antiseptic herbs.
Halitosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Pancreatic digestive enzymes?
10-100mg per meal.
Cleaves peptide bonds. Mucolytic.
Halitosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Betaine HCl?
400mg+ - increase as required.
Digestion of food- reduces fermentation.
Halitosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bromelain?
150-400mg per meal.
Protein digestion. Mucolytic.
Halitosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Papain?
10-100mg per meal.
Protein digestion.
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glucosamine, Slippery elm & glutamine?
1000mg each.
Gut repair, improve intestinal mobility, integrity and immunity.
Halitosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Chlorophyll (parsley, spinach, alfalfa)?
1tbsp twice daily.
For detoxification.
Which sulphur containing Amino acids are beneficial for liver detoxification?
Methionine.
Cysteine.
Taurine.
Glutathione.
Halitosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Zinc?
10-100mg. Ulceration, collagen reapir.
Halitosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of DHA (fish oil)?
400-4000mg. PGE-3
Halitosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Quercetin?
400-1200mg. reduce inflammation, support immune system.
Halitosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamic Acid?
500-3000mg. Raises stomach acid production, substrate for HCl production.
What foods should be avoided in Gastro-osophageal reflux?
Citrus, chocoloate, caffeine drinks, fried, fatty foods, garlic, onions, mint flavourings, spicy foods, tomato based sauces
What is a short-term treatment for GORD?
*Slippery Elm (neutralise acidity)
*Upright position.
*Small frequent meals.
*No caffeine
*No NSAID's
What is a long-term treatment for GORD?
*check for food allergies/sensitivities
*H. Pylori infection?
*Support digestive secretions.
*Support digestive repair
*reduce acid-forming foods.
*Evaluate lifestyle
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Slippery elm?
5grams in 1 glass water, 3 times a day. Coats, soothes and repairs mucosa.
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Soluable fibre?
10 grams TDS. Improves gastric motility, reduces pressure and gassws from fermentation.
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bromelain?
150-400mg. Proteolytic enzyme, anti-inflammatory.
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Papain?
10-100mg / meal
Proteolytic enzyme.
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of N-acetyl-glucosamine?
600-3000mg. Epithelium cellular repair.
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamine?
500-3000mg. Tissue repair.
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Zinc?
10-100mg. Ulceration, collagen repair.
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Fish oil (EPA / DHA)?
400-4000mg. PGE-3 precursor.
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Betaine HCl?
100-400mg/meal. Raises stomach acid, substrate for HCl production.
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamic Acid?
500-3000mg. Raises stomach HCl, substrate for HCl production.
GORD:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Cabbage Juice (Vitamin U)?
250ml a day. Increases the rate of healing for ulcers.
What is Hypochlorhydria?
A deficient level of hydrochloric acid is produced by the parietal cells of the stomach.
What are some symptoms of hypochlorhydria?
Indigeston, ulcer pain, burping, heartburn, halitosis.
What is the short term treatment for hypochlorhydria?
Apple cider vinegar/lemon juice in water 15 mins before meal.
Smaller, frequent meals.
Slippery elm powder.
Maintain fluid intake.
What is the long term treatment for hypochlorhydria?
Supplement with Betaine hydrochloride with meals.
H.Pylori infection?
Support digestive secretions.
Support digestive tissue repair.
Improve gut flora with probiotics.
Support lifestyle (less stress, alcohol, poor food choices, smoking).
Evaluate food combining.
Hypochlorhydria:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Betaine Hydrochloride?
100-400mg/meal. Raises stomach acid, substrate for HCl production.
Hypochlorhydria:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamic Acid?
500-3000mg. Raises stomach acid, substrate for HCl production.
Hypochlorhydria:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of B3 (Niacin/Nicotinamide)?
100-3000mg. Co factor for HCl production.
Hypochlorhydria:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of B12 (Cobalamin)?
300-800mcg. Impaired absorption.
Hypochlorhydria:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Pepsin?
10-100mg/meal. Cleaves peptide bonds.
Hypochlorhydria:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bromelian?
150-400mg/meal. Protein digestion.
Hypochlorhydria:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Papain?
10-100mg/meal. Protein digestion
Hypochlorhydria:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Iron?
15-50mg. Impaired absorption
Hypochlorhydria:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Slippery elm?
1 teaspoon/tds. Maintains and repairs tissue integrity. Anti inflammatory.
Hypochlorhydria:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Probiotics?
1-10billion twice daily. Supports gut flora.
What is the name for 99% of the glandular epithelial cells of the pancreas?
What do they do?
Acini. They are responsible for all exocrine pancreatic function.
What to Pancreatic Acini produce?
Pancreatic amylase
Trypisn
Chymotrypsin
Carboxypeptide
Elastase
Pancreatic lipase
Ribonuclease
Deoxyribonuclease
What is the name for 1% of the glandular epithelial cells of the pancreas?
What do they do?
Pancreatic islets: Islets of Langerhans. They are responsible for Endocrine function.
What to Pancreatic Islets produce?
Insulin
Glucagon
Somatostatin
Pancreatic polypeptide
Where does a peptic ulcer occur?
Anywhere in the digestive tract. Can be gastric or duodenal ulcer.
What are some S&S of Peptic ulceration?
Epigastric pain 45-60minutes after food, or nocturnally. Relieved by food, antacids or vomiting.
Occult blood in stool.
Anaemia.
What are 2 causes of Peptic ulceration?
H.Pylori infection.
NSAID's
Smoking
Stress/Worry
Food allergies/Sensitivities
Treatment of Peptic ulcers includes:
Avoid dairy
Eliminate acidic foods
Increase fibre intake
Fresh cabbage and veg juices
5 small meals a day
Slippery elm
Licorice
H.Pylori treatment
Sypport digestive and nervous systems
Relaxation And lifestyle.
Peptic Ulcer:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Vitamin A (retinol)?
10,000-50,000 IU. Assist in the maintainence of gut integrity. Antioxidant
Peptic Ulcer:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Vitamin C (Ascorbate)?
250-10,000mg. Collagen synthesis. Immune health. Antioxidant.
Peptic Ulcer:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Vitamin E (tocopherol)?
100-800mg. Antioxidant. Enhances cell membrane stability.
Peptic Ulcer:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bioflavinoids?
600mg-3gm. Collagen synthesis.
Peptic Ulcer:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Zinc?
10-100mg. Collagen synthesis and immune function.
Peptic Ulcer:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamine?
5200-3000mg. Promotion of gut mucosa healing.
Peptic Ulcer:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Cabbage (Vitamin U)?
250ml/day. Ulcer healing activity.
Peptic Ulcer:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of B Group?
1-2 tablets a day. Support nervous system.
Chronic Constipation:
Define.
Difficult of infrequent passage of faeces, hardness of stool or the feeling of incomplete evacuation.
Chronic Constipation:
Symptoms.
Bowel pain. Rectal discomfort. Abdominal distension. Nausea. Malaise. Ulceration of colon. Intestinal obstruction. Spurious diarrhoea.
Chronic Constipation:
In which groups is Faecal impaction most common?
Most common in the elderly and bedridden.
Pain, cramps, watery mucus.
What is the difference between acute and cronic constipation?
Acute- sudden change, indicates and organic cause eg. mechanical obstruction.
Chronic- usually the result of a systemic disorder eg. hypothyroidism, neurogenic disorder.
Chronic Constipation:
Short therm treatment:
Prune juice, dried fruit.
Psyllium, water.
Herbal extracts.
remove binding foods like banana and white rice
Chronic Constipation:
Long term:
Check for causative factors. Support digestive function and flora.
Support liver function.
Increase fibre and fluids.
Support nervous system.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Slippery Elm?
5gm TDS with glass of water.
Bulking agent.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bifido Bacteria?
Above 5 Billion.
Bacterial colonisation.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Fish oil (EPA)?
400-4000mg.
Bile flow and PGE-3.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Magnesium?
350-1000mg.
Muscle relaxant and laxative.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bioflavonoids?
100-300mg.
Vitamin C absorption and collagen synthesis.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glucosamine?
600-3000mg.
Epithelium cell.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamine?
500-3000mg.
Tissue repair.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Taurine?
250-2000mg.
Bile flow. Phase 1&2 detox.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bromelain?
150-400mg.
Cox-2 (anti-inflammatory pathways), Proteolytic enzyme.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Amylase?
5000 IU
Carbohydrate digestion.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Lipase?
2900 IU.
Fat digestion.
Chronic Constipation:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Protease?
330 IU.
Protein Digestion.
Diarrhoea:
What are the 3 major types of diarrhoea?
OSMOTIC, SECRETORY, EXUDATIVE.
*Osmotic - eg lactose intollerance. Unabsorbable, water soluable solutes remain in bowel & retain water.
*Secretory- Bowel tissue excretes more water and electrolytes than it absorbs. eg. bacterial toxins, drugs.
*Exudative - several mucosal diseases eg. UC, cancer. Mucosal ulceration and inflamm.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bifidus?
5 billion +.
Recolonise bacteria.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glucosamine?
600-3000mg.
Epithelium cell.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Slippery elm?
1 tbspn 2 times a day.
Mucosal support & repair.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamine?
500-3000mg.
Tissue repair.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bromelian?
150-400mg.
Anti-inflammatory.
Proteolytic enzyme.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Amylase?
5000 IU.
Carb digestion.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Lipase?
2900 IU.
Fat digestion.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of B group Vitamins?
1-2 tablets, twice daily.
Nerve support and control.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Betaine Hydrochloride?
100-400mg per meal.
Raises stomach acid. Substrate for HCl production.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamic acid?
500-3000mg.
Raises stomach acid. Substrate for HCL production.
Diarrhoea:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Multi-vitamin and mineral?
1 tablet TDS.
Aids to the orally ingested nutrient pool.
What is Ascariasis?
A parasitic infection by Ascaris Lumbricoides- a large, common intestinal roundworm. 25% of the world's population is infected.
Ascariasis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Vitamin A?
10,000-30,000 IU
Mucous membrane
Ascariasis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Garlic?
1000-3000mg
Anthelmintic
Ascariasis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bromelain?
500mg
Proteolytic enzyme
Ascariasis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Papain?
500-1000mg
Proteolytic enzyme
Ascariasis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Probiotics?
1-10 billion twice daily.
Intestinal flora support.
Ascariasis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamine?
500-3000mg.
Anti-inflammatory. immune support for GALT.
Intestinal Dysbiosis:
What is it?
Overgrowth of inappropriate bacteria in the GIT. Cause of chronic, systemic disorders.
Symptoms: bloating, nausea, diarrhoea, constipation, halitosis, skin rashes..
Cause: Parasitic infection, poor digestive enz funct, antibiotics or medication, poor diet, infections (chronic), stress, immunocompromised.
Intestinal Dysbiosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Dietary fibre?
12-20gm.
Fuel source for bacteria.
Intestinal Dysbiosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Probiotics?
5 billion +.
Support colonic flora.
Intestinal Dysbiosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of PRE-biotics (Fructo-oligo-saccharides -- FOS)?
1-4g.
Fuel source for bacteria.
Intestinal Dysbiosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Caprylic Acid (MCT)?
60mg-3.6g a day.
Destroys and inhibits the growth of yeast cells.
Intestinal Dysbiosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Gamma Oryzanol?
300-900mg/day
Anti fungal, antiinflammatory mucosal repair action.
Intestinal Dysbiosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Garlic?
1-3g
Anti-infective and anti-microbial.
Intestinal Dysbiosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Slippery elm, Glutamine & Glucosamine?
4g - slip elm. 1g each G&G.
Support healing and repair of intestinal tissue. Anti inflammatory agent.
Intestinal Dysbiosis:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Quercetin?
1000mg day
Powerful antioxidant, anti inflam.
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Amylase?
5000 IU.
Carbohydrate Digestion
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Lipase?
2900 IU
Fat Digestion
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Protease?
330 IU
Protein Digestion
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Zinc?
10-100mg
Collagen synthesis, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune support.
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamine?
500-3000mg
Tissue repair
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bromelain?
150-400mg
Cox 2, proteolytic enzyme
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Probiotics?
1-10 Billion.
re-establish gut flora.
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Fish oil (EPA)?
400-4000mg.
Anti-inflammatory (PGE3), Cox competitor
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Vitamin C?
250-10,000mg
Collagen synthesis
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bioflavonoids?
100-3000mg
C absorption, collagen synthesis.
Coeliac Disease:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glucosamine?
600-3000mg.
Epithelium cell
Coeliac Disease:
What is RATIONALE for the use of COCOA?
contains Epicatechin (OPC's), which is a leukotriene inhibitor.
Coeliac Disease:
What is RATIONALE for the use of Garlic?
Contains Allicin - Inhibits prostoglandin & leukotriene synthesis
Coeliac Disease:
What is the RATIONALE for the use of Ginger?
Contains gingerol and diarylhepatanoids, which inhibit prostoglandin and leukotiene synthesis.
Coeliac Disease:
What is the RATIONALE for the use of Tumeric?
Contains Curcumin which inhibits leukotrienes, prostoglandins and thromboxane.
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Vitamin A?
10,000-50,000 IU
Assist in the maintainence of gut integrity. Antioxidant.
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Vitamin C?
250-10,000mg
Collagen synthesis. immune system. antioxidant.
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Vitamin E?
100-800mg
Antioxidant, enhances cell membrane stability
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Bioflavonoids?
600mg-3g
Collagen synthesis
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Glutamine?
500-3000mg
Promotion of gut mucosa healing, GABA formation (for anxiety), IT repair
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Zinc?
10-100mg
Collagen synthesis, immune system
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of Probiotics?
1-10 billion
re-establish intestinal flora
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of B group?
1-2 tablets twice daily.
Nervous support
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of 5-H Tryptophan?
75mg twice daily.
Seretonin precursor
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of GLA/EFA?
3g a day
Anti inflammatory, specific for gut inflammation.
IBS:
What is the DOSAGE and RATIONALE for the use of N-acetyl-glucosamine?
500-1500mg
Anti-inflammatory, mucosal support and repair.