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151 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Define history
study of the past
Define philosophy
study of ideas
What is the WHO and UN definition of health?
State of physical, mental and social wellbeing... an awareness of harmony with the universe
What is healing?
Nature's tendency to restore harmony and a state of wellbeing
Name 5 potential causes of illness
genetic weakness
nutritional inadequacies
environmental stress
toxic exposure
inner struggle
What is an acute illness?
temporary imbalance on at least one of the four levels of health
What are the 4 levels of health?
What is chronic illness?
acute illness that has been left unattended; complex and difficult to control
What are the 3 concepts of illness?
1) Body as victim (bad luck, beyond own control)

2) Body as incarnate self (reflection of inner conflict)

3) Unity of body-mind-spirit (imbalance within/between body/mind/spirit)
What is disease?
serious derangement of health, disordered state of being. Represents a need for change, opportunity for learning and growth.
What are the origins of healing?
1) trial and error
2) observation of animals
3) instinct (Darwinian theory applied to ensure the conservation of the species)
What was early healing influenced by?
Environment (esp climate)
Local botany
Isolation of human groups
Local medical traditions
What is critical appraisal?
It is a system of review used to determine the usefulness of a piece of information.
What "tools" do you need to practice critical appraisal?
Questioning nature
Humble attitude...
What are some of the common features of healing throughout history?
1. People accepted the healing power of nature
2. Body and mind have the ability to self-heal
3. settled agriculture = decline in health
4. fraud an issue = both of illness & healing
5. women play an important role (midwifery, plant knowledge, techniques)
6. vital energy a theme thorughout many cultures
In which ancient culture(s) does natural medicine have it's roots?
Ancient Greece and Rome developed theoretical basis
In which ancient system of medicine does biomedicine have it's roots?
Galenic medicine (Greco/Roman)
What is "rational medicine"?
Medicine without religious elements.
Describe church involvement in formal medical practice in the early Middle Ages.
The Church controlled formal medicine. Initially, it was was practiced in monasteries, and later, the Church supervised medical education.
What impact did the Black Death (14thC)have on the Church?
Caused people to question why God would allow such devastation. The Church responded by pointing the finger at healers, witches, jews...
What impact did the Inquisition have on natural medicine?
Many female healers (deemed witches) were killed, others driven underground while corporatised physick increased market share.
What characterised the Renaissance period?
A desire for a better understanding of science and nature, and the development of the technology to achieve that - in particular, the telescope and microscope.
How did Galileo contribute?
1. Focus on improved understanding of nature by way of mathematics.
2. Applied reason as scientific method.
How did Paracelsus contribute?
Father of natural medicine -
* appealed to Christian Europe (which was supportive of the healing power of nature)
* "Like cured by like"
* spiritual essence of disease
* doctrine of signatures
* supported folk medicines
What did Francis Bacon pioneer?
Evidence-based medicine
What is Descartes known for?
"Human as Machine" theory:
* separation of mind from body
* disease = arbitrary malfunction
What is Culpepper known for?
*An English language translation of the Latin Pharmacopoeia - herbs for the masses.
* Became physician to London's poor.
How did biomedicine change through the Renaissance period?
Evolved from physick to biomedicine, away from Galenism, and further away from nature.
How did natural medicine change through the Renaissance period?
* Evolved to recognise the role of spirituality in the healing process
What is reductionism?
* Newton
* The nature of complex things is reduced to the nature of the sum of simpler things (ie, a person is arms + legs + organs etc)
* contradictory of holism in natural medicine
What is mechanism?
* The name of Descartes theory (human as machine).
* All natural phenomena can be explained by PHYSICAL causes
* contrasts with vitalism
* how to explain the human mind by mechanism? Free will, conscience...
How did biomedicine change during the 18th C? (Age of Enlightenment?)
Rapid advances in science and technology
How did the Industrial Revolution impact on health and healing?
* Growing population density
* Decreasing health
* Increasing affluence and poverty
* growing interest in, and desire for, advertised, patented medicines
What is vibrational medicine?
Attempts to treat people with pure energy.
Examples: homeopathy and flower essences
What are the key points in the evolution of modern natural medicine in Europe?
* NM very popular in France till 1945
* British Royal Family supporters of NM
* UK Medicines Bill INCLUDED natural remedies
What are the key points in the evolution of modern natural medicine in North America?
* Samuel Thomson patented first commercial medicine system (NM)
* Flexner report into med education saw closure of "irregular" schools in 1910
* Decline in popularity of NM post 1930s - biomedicine (with science) seen as being superior
* Legislation restricts "inferior" health systems
What are the key points in the evolution of modern natural medicine in Australia?
* Aboriginal distrust of biomedicine, used many practices similar to European NM
* vast distances btw settlements meant people needed to self-treat
* homeopathy gained popularity
How is biomedicine responding to modern natural medicine in Australia and North America?
* lobby governments re safety and efficacy
* PR campaigns suggesting ineffectiveness and potential danger
* Lobbies governments to ban/restrict treatments and remedies to biomedical doctors
Briefly discuss the importance of Electro-Magnetic Fields (EMFs) in natural medicine.
* Magnetic field of the Earth resonates a the same frequency as the human brain
* Frequencies below 10 Hz said to be calming and strengthening
* Frequencies above the body's natural EMF are potentially damaging - higher = worse.
How is Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity important to natural medicine?
Each individual is appreciated as being the master blueprint of themselves, requiring specific and unique contextual conditions internally and externally to achieve optimal health.
How does Quantum Theory apply to natural medicine?
* Everything is interconnected
* supports the theory of vibrational energy
* Quantum theorists introduced role of consciousness and connectedness into physics
How does Chaos Theory apply to natural medicine?
* All natural (chaotic) systems are very sensitive to initial conditions - a very slight change at the starting point can lead to enormously different end results
* Chaotic systems are guided by some sort of intelligence (in NM, homeostasis)
* systems can go through periods of instability and re-emerge to a higher level of order via creative adaption (in NM, healing crisis).
What is the relevance of the new science theories to natural medicine?
* validate interconnectedness of all things
* support concept of vitalism
* underline complexity of nature (& therefore illness)
* support concept of holism
* validate concept of vibrational medicine
* illustrate the uniqueness of individuality (treat the person, not the disease)
What is holism?
* attending to all aspects of an individual (body, mind, spirit)
* everything is greater than the sum of its parts
* contraindicates synthetic drugs and specialists as they treat in isolation
What is vitalism?
* concept of vital energy in whole living systems
* healing is assisting vital energy to do its work
* vital energy features in other cultures' NM paradigms
* disease = blockage of vital energy
* organizing, intelligent, healing

NM = vis medicatrix naturae
Ayurveda = prana
Homeopathy = vital force
Chiro = universal intelligence
TCM = qi
What is homeostasis?
* Body's capacity for internal regulation to sustain life
* Body naturally strives for balance
* "healing power of nature"
What is the mind-body connection?
* body and mind influence each other both positively and negatively
* commonality between European, Chinese & Indian natural medicine
What are the three realms of the body?
* Biochemical
* Structural
* Psychological
What is spirituality?
* difficult to define, vague concept
* Spirituality creates a support framework for the individual
* addressed by holism
What is detoxification?
Addressed by:
* fasting
* diet
* herbs
* exercise
* massage

Generally aimed at liver cleansing, to remove excess waste products
What is digestion?
* process of breaking foods down into usable form
* Three main processes
1) chewing and saliva in mouth
2) stomach
3) small intestine
Why are naturopaths so interested in digestion?
* many diseases result from poor digestion or inadequate nutrient absorbtion

Key interests to:
* remove food irritants
* enhance waste elimination & cleanse the colon
* support the liver
* restore beneficial gut bacteria
What is the information base of NM practitioners?
* philosophy (set of principles that guide)
* tradition (observations handed down through history)
* clinical experience
* science (research, studies, trials etc)
How does evidence based medicine fit with NM?
Where possible, treatments should be based on valid, reliable and appropriate evidence. BUT such evidence may not always be available.
What is critical appraisal, in the context of NM?
Ability to rationally assess the evidence behind a healing process, including the kind of culture in which it evolved and whether it has been scientifically assessed.
What are the benefits of critical appraisal for NM practitioners?
1) help to provide optimal client care
2) facilitate better communication with clients and other healthcare professionals
3) enhance practitioner fulfilment
What are the limitations of critical appraisal for NM practitioners?
* NM researchers will often use qualitative research, not quantitative
* mainly applicable in the area of the prescription of a specific treatment
What can affect vital energy?
emotions (STRESS!)
level of spiritual balance
What are the principles of natural medicine?
Vis medicatrix naturae
Tolle causam
Primum non nocere
Treat the whole person
What does Ayurveda mean?
Science of Life
What does Ayurveda encompass?
Science, religion and philosophy
What is Ayurveda?
* "The science of daily living"

* aims for physical, mental and spiritual wellbeing

* emphasis on prevention of disease/disharmony

* treats people, animals and plants

* part of wider Hindu philosophy of rebirth

* oral tradition
How old is Ayurveda?
at least 5000 years old
What is prana?
* vital force
* all vibrating energy (physical, mental, spiritual...)
* integrates whole of the human body
* pervades entire body distributing energy from food and breath
What are the foundations of ayurveda?

1) holism (treatment of individual as a whole)

2) Inexpensive medicine
(mostly from plants)

3) Medicine is tonic (treats disease, helps to prevent)

4) psycho-somatic concept of disease (not exclusively either)

5) preventative medicine

6) promotes wellness and creative growth

7) re-establish balance of all energies in the body to reduce physical deterioration

8) involvement of the individual in own healing

9) balanced health foundation for fulfilment of biological, mental and spiritual processes
What is ayurvedic body type?
The blueprint of how nature intended you to live - covers food, thoughts, actions...
What is the advantage of knowing your ayurvedic body type?
1) seeds of disease sown early in life
2) body type makes prevention more specific
3) body type makes treatment more accurate
4) know yourself and your needs better
5) understanding the mind-body link
What are doshas?
* basic constitutions
* represent natural elements, tastes, temperatures, behaviours, body parts and functions
What are the 3 doshas?
Vata - air and ether
Pitta - fire and water
Kapha - earth and water
What is important about the tridoshas?
* Everyone has aspects of the tridoshas
* your basic constitution at birth remains constant
* a balance of the tridoshas is vital to health
* together they govern all metabolic activities
What happens if a dosha is out of balance?
metabolic activities are affected - anabolism, catabolism or metabolism.
What is vata responsible for?

What is a typical vata body shape?

long and thin
What is pitta responsible for?

What is a typical pitta body type?

hot, neither solid nor thin
What is kapha responsible for?

What is a typical Kapha body type?

What are the 6 stages of disease in Ayurveda?

1. accumulation (one or more doshas)
2. aggrevation
3. dissemination
4. localization
5. manifestation
6. disruption
How are diagnoses made in Ayurveda?

What is immunity?
• A state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion
What can enhance the immune system?
• Healthy lifestyle, well-balanced diet, adequate sleep & exercise, positive thinking

• Touch & movement therapies to improve flow of lymph, vital to healthy immune system

• Herbal remedies and nutritional supplements

• Mind therapies, which may be beneficial for long-standing conditions (as thoughts and feelings influence immune processes)
What affects vital force?
• Stress
• Lifestyle choices
• Eating/drinking habits
• Exercise
• Spiritual choices
• Moral choices
• Environment
• Perspective
What is a disease crisis?
• acute reaction
• occurs when disease overcomes the Vital Force and threatens life
What is a healing crisis?
• acute reaction
• symptoms briefly worsen as a result of detoxifying when the body attempts to eliminate disease on any level
• positive sign that the Vital Force is becoming stronger
– dependant on progression of disease & strength of vital force
What does xenobiotic mean?
foreign-life (ie, toxins)
What does probiotic mean?
For-life (ie, intestinal flora form a symbiotic relationship with the body)
Define iatrogenesis
harm caused by medical professional or drug.
What is nosocomial illness?
that which arises from a stay in hospital
What is toxaemia?
build-up of toxins in the body that may occur as a result of poor diet, polluted air and water, drugs and/or sluggish eliminatory organs
What is natural medicine?
• various modalities of healing which do not use pharmaceutical drugs or surgery.
• also sometimes referred to as alternative or complementary medicine.
• based on holistic principles
• aims to get a the root cause of any illness.
Very trustworthy people deserve to have pie
What is naturopathy?
* The study and use of natural substances

* a belief in the self-healing ability of the body and mind

* belief in the inherent life force within us all
Name some modalities of naturopathy.
•Herbal medicine
•Flower and Bush essences
•Osteopathy & Chiropractic
What are the 7 principles of naturopathy?
1.Vis Medicatrix Naturae (the healing power of nature):
•facilitate and augment the body’s inherent self healing process (the vital force)
•Support the homoeostatic mechanism (the body’s natural drive towards balance)

2.Tolle Causam (identify and treat the cause/s):
•identify and address the underlying causes of disease.

3.Primum Non Nocere (first do no harm):
•Remedies at minimum effective dosage, as close as possible to natural state.

4.Docere (doctor as teacher):
•educate clients and encourage self responsibility for health.

5.Treat the whole person:
•taking into consideration individual physical, emotional, mental, inherited, environmental, social and spiritual factors.

6.Herrings Law of Cure : A treatment of disease is getting better when symptoms move in any of the directions
•From above downwards- headache to gut pain
•From within outwards- it is starting to move out of the body- bowel toxicity to skin
•From major to minor organs- Liver to skin
•In reverse order of appearance of symptoms (retracing)

•the prevention of disease and reoccurrences by treating the cause & educating the client
Describe a typical consultation with a naturopath.
• First consult- typically 1 – ½ hrs
• Detailed case history to u/s health form all perspectives to diagnose cause & contributing factors
• Lifestyle, diet, stress, environmental, family history; iris, pulse, tongue & fingernail analyses; assess signs & symptoms; pathology tests
• Practitioner will then apply NM principles to determine therapeutic strategy – decision made in consultation with client.
• As the clients health changes, so does the level of intervention
Name the three kinds of remedies.
• Substances found in nature
–Organic, pure water, fresh sir, sunlight, whole herbs

•Substance minimally processed
–Herbal extracts, capsules, homoeopathics, vitamins & minerals, food extracts (spirulina, vegetables & fruit juices)
–Substance minimally processed but still retain their original natural state

•Manufactured remedies
–resemble natural substances such as synthetic vitamin & mineral supplements. Often less expensive and available in higher concentrations
What forms can herbal medicines take?
•Herbal teas
•Tablets or capsules
•Liquid extracts & Tinctures
•Glycerol extracts or “glycetracts”
•Fresh juices
•Essential or Volatile oils
What sort of healing do flower essences appeal to?
Name some of the benefits of massage
• Reduce anxiety levels
• Promotes relaxation
• Stimulates blood & lymph
• Stimulates circulatory & nervous systems
• Produces vasodilatation & mobilizes soft tissue
What is a chakra?
A psycho-energy centre, deep within the midline of the body, and associated with various nerves and blood vessels.
When was TCM established?
What are the 5 elements in TCM?
What is the word for vital energy in TCM?
Describe the heaven-earth-man theory.
Heaven = shen/spirit
Man = qi/energy
Earth = Jing/essence
What are the three key aspects of TCM?
Yin & yang (seasons) theory
Meridians (channels)
What is chiropractic?
• theory that disease is caused by abnormal function of the nervous system.
• attempts to restore normal function by manipulation and treatment of the structures of the body, especially those of the spinal column.
What is osteopathy?
* system of therapy that emphasizes normal body mechanics

* uses manipulation to correct faulty body structures.
What are the laws of homeopathy?
1. The law of similars: like cures like- substance may cure in a sick person what it would create in a healthy person.

2. The Law of the Minimum Dose: “potentisation” a substance is serially diluted by taking one part of a given solution and adding it to a water / alcohol solution. Concentrations of 1:10 ‘X’, 1:100 ‘C’, succeed to release the energy

3. The Law of the single Remedy: simplexes vs. complexes- traditional homeopaths us only simplexes.
Name some of the benefits of massage
• Reduce anxiety levels
• Promotes relaxation
• Stimulates blood & lymph
• Stimulates circulatory & nervous systems
• Produces vasodilatation & mobilizes soft tissue
What is reflexology?
• Stimulation of the foot or hand corresponding to a particular part or organ of the body
Describe the biomedical model
• Roots of biomedicine in mechanism
• The human body is regarded as a machine that can be analysed in terms of its parts
• disease is a biological malfunction
• doctor’s role is to intervene, either physically or chemically, to correct the malfunction
• By concentrating on smaller and smaller fragments of the body, modern medicine often loses sight of the patient as a human being and by reducing health to mechanical functioning, it is no longer able to deal with the phenomenon of healing.
What is TCM?
TCM is a functional medicine which considers the human being as a black box, unable to see what is inside but able to observe what goes into this black box and what comes out.
According to TCM, what goes in and what comes out?

Bowel motions
What are the key points to understand about yin/yang?
1. everything has aspects of both yin and yang
2. yang = loud, hot, aggressive
3. yin = quiet, subdued, cold
4. Each requires the other, creates the other, transforms into the other
What are the 8 principles in diagnosis in TCM?
What are meridians/channels in TCM?
The meridians are information pathways informing and connecting the various parts of the body into a whole interacting system

The channels are regarded as three-dimensional passageways through which the Qi and Blood flow at various levels of the body.
What is acupuncture?
Acupuncture treatment involves the insertion of fine, sterile needles into specific sites (acupuncture points) along the body's meridians to clear energy blockages and encourage the normal flow of qi through the individual.
What are some of the benefits of acupuncture?
As a natural form of healing, acupuncture has the following benefits:
provides drug-free pain relief
effectively treats a wide range of acute and chronic ailments
treats the underlying cause of disease and illness as well as the symptoms
provides an wholistic approach to the treatment of disease and illness, linking body, mind and emotions
assists in the prevention against disease and illness as well as the maintenance of general well-being
What is the Doctrine of Signatures?
* Paracelsus
* assists to identify curative powers of plants;
* plants carry labels or signatures which indicate their medicinal use;

eyebright made to resemble a blue iris to show it was good for eye diseases..,

leaves in the shapes of lungs should be used for bronchial conditions,

yellow juice for treatment of conditions relating to bile.
What is the naturopathic therapeutic order?
1. Re-establish the basis for health
2. Stimulate the vis medicatrix naturae
3. Tonify weakened systems
4. Correct structural integrity
5. Prescribe specific natural substances
6. Prescribe specific pharmaceutical & synthetic substances
7. Use higher force intervention (surgery)
running stops the cellulite, nothing stops ugly
What are the aims of natural medicine?




Discuss the safety of Western Herbal Medicine.
Considerable evidence of safety exists

Aust govt accepts written records of traditional use of herbs as evidence of safety

Practitioners trained to be aware of drug interactions.
What is the traditional approach to nutrition?
Mostly related to problem avoidance - avoiding high allergenic foods etc.
What is the functional approach to nutrition?
Alteration of body functions that cause health problems rather than avoiding foods that aggrevate them.
How do natural therapists address nutrition?
elimination of irritants
food diaries
diet modification
In homeopathy, what is considered to be the cause of disease?
disruption in vital force
What are provings?
The matching of a homeopathic remedy to the dominant physical, mental and emotional symptoms of a client.
What is aromatherapy?
therapeutic use of essential oils.
Foundation lies in herbal medicine.
How are essential oils utilised by aromatherapists?
Aromatherapy massage
Aromatic baths- full, sitz, foot, hand
Face Compress
Describe various types of massage
Subtle energy massage
Relaxation massage
Remedial massage
Swedish massage- primarily relaxes
Sports massage
Manual lymphatic drainage massage (oedema)
Shiatsu massage
Aromatherapy massage
Describe herbalism in the UK, US and Australia today.
US - poorly organised, small numbers, not popular

UK - better than the US, but still a small following

Australia - more developed than UK and US, but still a small following
Define massage
Manipulation of skin, muscle and joints (usually by hand) to relax muscle spasm, relieve tension, improve circulation and hasten elimination of wastes.
What is EBM?
Integration of best evidence with clinical expertise and patient values
How does EBM apply to natural medicine?
Research-based evidence is ONE type of information to be considered when determining a treatment plan

* overemphasis on a scientific view of healthcare by biomedicine
* individual values of client are often overlooked or under-rated
* need to remember natural medicine principles
Aside from EBM, what are other types of knowledge?
Tradition and custom
personal experience
Is there a need for natural medicine research?
Would provide better understanding of what works and how
What are the challenges of NM research?
1) how to conduct holistic research

2) funding

3) small research community in NM
What are some of the barriers preventing the integration of biomedicine and natural medicine?
* lack of Scientific "proof"
* Intangibility of many NM concepts
* Fear
* Perception that all biomedicine practitioners are "unenlightened"
* issue of holism vs reductionism
What are the areas of common ground between NM and biomed?
* working in patient's best interests
* increasing appreciation of mind-body link
* increasing appreciation of importance of diet
What is vital force?
The organising, intelligent, healing energy within all complex organisims. Gives life and makes wellbeing possible.
What is enervation?
lack of vitality
What is the collective unconscious?
Term coined by Carl Jung
reservoir of the experiences of our species
What is the special theory of relativity?
*replaced Galileo's classical mechanics with a new theory on the structure of spacetime
Explain dilution and succussion (homeopathy)
Dilution - remedies are serially diluted in alcohol (or springwater). The more dilute, the higher the potency.
x = 10 times
c = 100 times

Succussion - forceful shaking
Explain the relationship between the 5 elements and qi in TCM.
* 5 elements theory used to interpret the relationship between human and nature
* elements are interdependent for mutual generation, restriction and balance
* each of the elements represents a taste, process, organ, sense...
* inbalance in any of the 5 elements results in qi not being able to do it's work, thus creating stagnancy
What are the principles of diagnosis in TCM?

* yin/yang, hot/cold, interior/exterior, excess/deficiency
* relative strength of client
* location, climate, diet, activity level...
What is the relationship between qi, meridians and yin/yang?
* qi travels through meridians (channels)
* there are 12 meridians - 6 yin, 6 yang
* essential for yin, yang and qi to circulate around the body to nourish
Describe the significance of TCM exercise therapies such as qigong and tai chi.
* slow, gentle, tranquil movements encourage harmony in body and mind
* improved mobility, suppleness, mental alertness
* flow of qi, balances yin & yang
What sort of treatments does Ayurveda use?
diet (food as medicine)
exercise (yoga)
What is the purpose of yoga?
Bring balance and calmness to the mind through the use of yogic postures and breathing
What are some of the health benefits of yoga and meditation?
enhanced concentration
mental clarity
lowered blood pressure
yoga - flexibility & strength
meditation - patience, memory
What are the three causes of disease according to Ayurveda?
innate (doshas)
What is the goal of TCM?
live temperate lifestyle to maintain control of health and body processes
What is qi?
medium and stimulus for transformation
Describe the use of herbs in TCM
integral part of TCM
extensive pharmacopoeia
plants, minerals and animal parts
ephedera and ginseng