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20 Cards in this Set

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Metabolic Acidosis
pH < 7.35
HCO3 <22 mEq/L
Metabolic acidosis cause
excess acids
bicarb deficiency
Metabolic Acidosis
Common Causes
Increased acid production - lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis
Decreased acid excretion - renal failure
Increased Bicarb loss - Diarrhea, ileosomy drainage, intestinal biliary or pancreatic fistulas
Increased Chloride - sodium chloride IV solutions, renal tubular acidosis, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Metabolic Alkalosis
Common Causes
Increased acid loss or excretion - vomiting, gastric suction, hypokalemia
Increased Bicarb - Alkali ingestion (bicarbonate of soda), excess bicarb administration
Metabolic acidosis compensation
rate and depth of respirations increase, eliminating additional CO2
Respiratory Acidosis
pH < 7.35
PaCO2 > 45 mmHg
Metabolic Alkalosis
pH > 7.45
HCO3 > 26 mEq/L
Metabolic alkalosis cause
bicarb excess
Metabolic acidosis effect on ABGs
decrease pH
decrease HCO3
decrease PaCO2
Respiratory Alkalosis
pH 7.45
PaCO2 < 35 mmHg
Respiratory Alkalosis
Common Causes
Anxiety induced hyperventilation, fever, early salicylate intoxication, hperventilation with mechanical ventilator
Metabolic alkalosis compensation
rate and depth of respirations decrease, retaining CO2
Metabolic alkalosis effect on ABGs
increase pH
increase HCO3
increase PaCO2
Respiratory acidosis cause
retained CO2
excess carbonic acid
Respiratory acidosis compensation
Kidneys conserve bicarb to resore carbonic acid:bicarb ration of 1:20
Respiratory Acidosis
Common Causes
Acute respiratory conditions (pulmonary edema, pneumonia, acute asthma), opiate OD, foreign body aspiratio0n, chest trauma
Chronic respiratory acidosis, COPD, cystic fibrosis, MS, Stroke
Respiratory acidosis effect on ABGs
decrease pH
Increase PaCO2
Increase HCO3
Respiratory alkalosis cause
loss of CO2
deficient carbonic acid
Respiratory alkalosis compensation
Kidneys excrete bicarb and conserve H+ to restore carbonic acid: bicarb ratio
Respiratory alkalosis effect on ABGs
increase pH
decrease PaCO2
decrease HCO3