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27 Cards in this Set

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Acid (definition)
substance containing hydrogen ions that can be liberated or released
Alkali (definition)
a substance that can accept or trap hydrogen ions
An acid releases hydrogen as follows:
H2CO3 -> H+ -> HCO3-
a base traps hydrogen as follows:
HCO3- + H+ -> H2CO3
strong acid vs weak acid
a strong acid separates completely in solution and releases all of it's H+ ions, a weak acid loses only a few
Strong base vs weak base
strong base accepts H+ ions easily, while a weak base accepts H+ ions less readily
approximate PH of gastric secretions
1-1.3
approximate PH of pancreatic secretions
10
examples of strongly acid and base body fluids
Acid: gastric secretions
Base: pancreatic secretions
normal serum PH
7.35 - 7.45
Acidosis
excess of H+ ions in ECF and pH falls below 7.35
Alkalosis
lack of H+ ions in ECF and pH rises above 7.45
3 major homeostatic regulators of hydrogen ions
1) buffer systems
2) respiratory mechanisms
3) renal mechanisms
buffer (definition)
a substance that prevents body fluids from becoming overly acidic or alkaline
3 buffer systems for pH
1) carbonic acid-sodium barcarbonate
2) Phosphate buffer system
3) Protein buffer system
what is the most important pH buffer system
carbonic acid-sodium barcabonate buffer system
how much of the H+ of ECF does the carbonic acid-sodium bicarb system buffer?
up to 90%
normal ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid
20:1
where is the phosphate buffer system active?
in the intracellular fluids
what does the phosphate buffer system do?
it converts alkaline sodium phosphate, a weak base, to acid-sodium phosphate in the kidneys
Chemical symbol for sodium phosphate
NaHPO4
Chemical symbol for acid-sodium phosphate
NaH2PO4
What is the protein buffer system?
a mix of plasma proteins and the globin portion of hemoglobin in RBCs
How does the protein buffer system work?
plasma proteins and hgb have chemical groups that can combine with or liberate H+ ions and tend to minimize changes in pH
How well does the protein buffer system work?
excellent buffering agents over a wide range of pH values.
excess H+ ions cross over the plasma membrane of RBCs and bind to the hgb molecules that are plentiful in each RBC
example of how the protein buffer system can work
Body reactions at different ph levels...
< 6.8 = death; 6.8-7.35 = acidosis; 7.35-7.45 = normal; 7.45-7.8 = alkalosis; > 7.8 = death!