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19 Cards in this Set

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Name the 7 strong acids
HCl
HBr
HI
HNO3
HClO3
HClO4
H2SO4
Arrhenius definitions of acids and bases
Acids produce H+

Bases produce OH-
Bronsted-Lowry definitions
Acids transfer H+

Bases receive H+
Lewis definitions
Acids are election pair acceptors

Bases are electron pair donors
Autoionization of water constant
1 * 10^-14 at 25 degrees Celsius
Le Chatelier's Principle
If a system at equilibrium is perturbed by a change in temperature, pressure, or concentration, the system will shift its equilibrium position so as to (partially) counteract the effect of perturbation.
"If you push the universe, it pushes back."
Common Ion Effect
Extent of dissociation of a weak electrolyte is decreased by adding a strong electrolyte that has an ion in common with weak electrolyte.

HA <--> H+ + A-
MA <--> M+ + A-
Common ion comes from both wk acid and soluble salt. Addition of salt suppresses dissociation of wk acid.

"Ions just want to be alone."
Calculations via ICE table:

As a general rule, it quantity of x is more than ____ of initial value, it is better to use the quadratic formula.
5%
Henderson-Hasselbach Equation
pH = pKa + log[HA]/[A-]
How do you calculate the pH of a buffer solution?

HA <--> H+ + A-
MA <--> M+ + A-
pH = pKa + log[salt]/[acid]
Blood is a _____ solution that needs to stay in the pH range of _____.
buffered, 7.35-7.45 (usually 7.4)
The buffer system in blood is made from ____ and ____ and has a high capacity to neutralize ____.
carbonic acid and bicarbonate
acids
HF HCl HBr HI
Acid strength is ______

CH4 NH3 H2O HF
Acid strength is ______
increasing
increasing
Ideal gas law
PV = nRT
R = gas constant = 0.08206 L-atm/mol-K
Converting Kp to Kc
Kp = Kc (RT)^delta n
Dalton's Law
sum of partial pressures = total pressure

OR

partial pressure = (mole fraction X)(total pressure)

X = moles gas / total moles
Insoluble solids dissolve slightly in H2O, measured by Ksp, the ________.

Solubility is measured in units of _____.

Molar solubility is defined by ____.

Solubility can be strongly influenced by _____, _____, and __.
solubility product constant

g of solute/L of soln

moles of solute that dissolve to form 1 L of saturated soln

common ion effect
complex ion formation
pH
Complex ion formation
Occurs when ion of an insoluble compound can form a soluble complex ion in solution--> increases solubility, determined by Kf

Assembly of a metal ion and Lewis base

Multiply Ksp and Kf (formation constant) together
Amphiprotic

Amphoteric oxides and bases
any molecule that can gain or lose a proton

more specific: insoluble in neutral H2O, dissolve in stg acid or base, can behave as acid or base
ex. Al3+, Cr3+, Zn2+, Sn2+