Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the bicarbonate to carbonic ratoi?
What if the ratio is decreasded?
It is acidosis
What if the ratio is increased?
It is alkolosis
What is a normal ph of blood?
What represents the respiratory system?
What is normal PCO2 range?
35 to 45 mm Hg
What does fully compensated mean?
It means that ph is back to normal range.
What does partially compensated mean?
One level is high but the ph is not yet in the normal range.
What are the actions of adsorbants?
Thay are locally acting agents that bind with and innactivate irritants, toxins, and bacteria.
Ex Kaolin and Pectin or Kaopectate
What are the actions of systemic opiates?
They slow intestinal motility decreasing peristalsis.
ex lomotil
What is a contraindication of antidiarrheals?
Diarrhea caused by toxic material.
What does pH stand for?
Parts Hydrogen
Bicarbonate Buffer System
Body's primary Buffer System
Mainly responsible for buffering blood and interstitial fluid
Kidneys assist the bicarbonate system by regulating the production of bicarb
Lungs assist by regulating the production of carbonic acid.
Protein Buffer System
Most important one is the intracellular fluid
Amine group can act as a base or acid
As a base by picking up
extra hydrogen to increase
Phosphate Buffer Group
Regulation of blood ph of blood by kidneys
Especially effective in renal tubes
What is the second line of defense against acid base imbalances?
Respiratory system
Occurs when the bodys ability to compensate is so effective that the ph falls within normal range.
Respiratory ABG
PaCO2 35 to 45 mm Hg
Metabolic ABG
HCO3 22 to 26 mEq/L
Blood ph
Below 7.35 is acidosis
Above 7.45 is alkalosis
What does high ph and low PaCO2 usually indicate?
REspiratory origin
What does low ph and high PaCO2 mean?
Respiratory Acidosis
If ph is high then bicarb should be high.
Low ph and low bicarb indicates what?
metabolic acidosis
CO2 indicates what?
HCO3 indicates what?
Compensation involves opposites.
If metabolic acidosis, compensation will come in the form of respiatory alkalosis.
Chemoreceptors in the brain sense ph change.
Breath rate and depth changes to compensate.
The respiatory system can maintain acid base balance twice as much as chemical buffers.
It can handle twice the amount of acids and bases.
Carbonic acid
Is a weak acid
Is a weak base.
Volatile is weak acid
Carbonic acid
Nonvolatile is fixed or strong acid.
Hydrochloric Acid
For ph to be normal range what is ratio?
20 parts bicarb to 1 part acid.
What allows for moment to moment regulators?
Buffer Systems
What buffer system uses carbonic acid and bicarbonate to counteract stronger acids or bases?
Bicarbonate Buffer System
What is the final regulator of acid base balance?
Base excess or deficit measures the level of what?
All Buffer Systems
What is the difference between Na+ and sum of measured anions (Cl and HCO3)?
Anion Gap
What is the normal level of Anoion Gap?
8-12 mEq/L
What if the anion gap if high?
Think metabolic acid accumulation in the bloodstream.
What is the prototype for antiflatulents?
simethicone (Mylicon)
What is intestinal flora modifier?
lactobaccillus acidophilus
Yogurt (restores normal flora)