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49 Cards in this Set

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Cardiac Output
The amount of blood that flows from each ventricle in one minute.
Heart Rate
The numer of times the heart beats per minute.
Stroke Volume
The amount of blood pumped from each ventricle each time the heart beats.
Ejection Fraction
The percentage of the total volume of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during the systolic contraction of the heart.
Oxygen Extraction
The amount of oxygen taken from the hemoglobin molecule and used in the exercising muscle cells; often referred to as the arterio-venous oxygen difference.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A high-energy phosphate molecule required to provide energy for cellular function. Produced both aerobically and anaerobically, and stored in the body.
Aerobic System
The metabolic pathway that, in the prescence of oxygen, uses glucose for energy production; also known as aerobic glycolysis.
Anaerobic Glycolysis
The metabolic pathway that uses glucose for energy production without requiring oxygen. Sometimes referred to as the lactic acid system or anaerobic glycolysis system, it produces lactic acid as a by-product.
Creatine Phosphate System
System of transfer of chemical energy for resynthesis of ATP supplied rapidly and without oxygen from the breakdown of creatine phosphate (CP); also known as the ATP-CP system.
Mitochondria
Specialized subcellular structures located within body cells that contain oxidative enzymes needed by the cell to metabolize food into energy sources.
Ischemia
A local deficiency of blood supply caused by the constriction or obstruction of the arteries, which results in a decreased supply of oxygen to the tissues.
Angina Pectoris
Sensation of pain or pressure in the chest often a result of ischemia. Often aggravated or induced by exercise or stress.
Anaerobic Threshold
The point during high intensity activity when the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism predominates, also called lactate threshold.
Glycogen
The storage form of glucose found in the liver and muscles.
Phosphagens
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatin phosphate (CP), two high-energy phosphate molecules that can be broken down for immediate use by the cells.
Kilocalorie
The unit of energy most often used in exercise. The amount of heat that will raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree celius.
Hyperventilation
A greater-than-normal rate of breathing that results in abnormal loss of carbon dioxide from the blood; dizziness may occur.
Enzymes
Proteins necessary to bring about bio-chemical reactions.
Maximal Oxygen Consumption
The highest volume of oxygen a person can consume during exercise; maximun aerobic capacity. The total capacity to consume oxygen at the cellular level.
Metabolic Equivalent (MET)
A simplified system for classifying physical activities where it is equal to the resting oxygen consumption, which is approximately 3.5 mL of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute.
Vasodilation
Increase in diameter of the blood vessels, especially dialation of arterioles leading to increased blood flow to a part of the body.
Vasoconstriction
Narrowing of the opening of blood vessels caused by contraction of the smooth muscle cells in the walls of the vessel.
Systolic Blood Pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls during ventricular contraction.
Diastolic Blood Pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls when the heart relaxes between contractions.
Overload Principle
A principle of human performance that states that beneficial adaptations occur in response to demands applied to the body at levels beyond a certain threshold, but within the limits of tolerance and safety.
Venous Return
Return to the heart of the circulatory fluids by way of the veins.
Specificity of Training
For a individual to become proficient at any given movement, that movement must be trained and practiced; a specific demand made on the body will result in a specific response by the body.
Motor Neurons
Nerve cells that conduct impulses from the CNS to the periphery signaling muscles to contract or relax, regulating muscular movement.
Neurotransmitters
Chemical substances such as acetylcholine or dopamine that transmit nerve impulses across synapses.
Acetylcholine
A white crystalline neurotransmitter and derivative of choline that is released at the ends of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems and is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses in the body.
Neuromuscular Junction
The site at which a motor neuron transmits info to a muscle fiber; the juction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies.
Myofibrils
Contractile proteins in a muscle fiber.
Actin
Contractile protein in a myofibril.
Myosin
Contractile protein in a myofibril.
Contractile Proteins
Proteins primarily related to the process of muscle contraction.
Sarcomeres
Repeating unit of a muscle fiber.
Sarcolemma
The membrane surrounding sarcomere, which is the fuctional unit of muscle fiber.
Sarcoplasm
A gelatin like tissue surrounding the sarcomere, which is the functional unit of muscle fiber.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
The form of endoplasmic reticulum where calcium is stored to be used for muscle activation; located in striated muscle fibers.
Sliding Filament Theory
A generally accepted theory explaining the interaction between actin and myosin proteins and ATP to cause muscle contraction.
Cross-Bridge
Tiny projections from the myosin attach to the actin and form an actin-myosin bridge during muscle contraction.
Concentric Contraction
A positive contraction in which muscle exerts force, shortens, and overcomes a resistance.
Eccentric Contraction
A negative contraction in which a muscle exerts force, lengthens, and is overcome by a resistance.
Isometric Contraction
A contraction in which a muscle exerts force but does not change in length.
Motor Unit
A single motor nerve (from the spinal cord) and all the muscle fibers it stimulates.
Golgi Tendon Organ (GTO)
A sensory organ within a tendon that, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against too much force.
Dehydration
A condition of having less than optimal level of body water.
Elasticity
Temporary or recoverable elongation of connective tissue.
Muscle Spindle
The sensory organ within a muscle that is sensitive to stretch and thus protects the muscle from being stretched too far.