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87 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
elements of art
basic visual components of any artwork: line, shape, form, space, color, texture
sensory properties
another name for elements of art--percieved through the senses
line
most basic element, path of a point moving through space
implied line
line that uses interrupted dots or lines that the eye connects to create a line
horizontal lines (what do they create)
feeling of stability, peace
vertical lines (create)
stability, upward motion
jagged lines (create)
activity or chaos
shape
what defines the 2d area of an object
form
three-d object, like shape
freeform
irregular shape
organic
another name for freeform--expresses movement and rhythm
space
organization of objects and the areas around them
positive space
occupied by objects, shapes or forms (the figure)
negative space
area around the objects, shapes, or forms; aka ground
high relief
projects from the surface boldlu
perspective
illusion of depth
contours
visible borders of an object
aerial perspective
aka atmospheric, takes into acct the ways that particles in the air change appearances of things far away (less color)
linear perspective
developed in Renaissance, as lines recede into distance, converge and eventually vanish at pt on the horizon
hue
the name of the color
primary colors
three--red, blue, yellow
color wheel
invented in 18th century by Sir Isaac Newton
value
lightness or darkness of a color or gray
tint
lighter hue made by adding white
shade
darker hue made by adding black
neutrals
black and white, not hues
intensity
brightness or purity of a color
complementary colors
opposite hues on color wheel, intense contrast
monochromatic
use only one hue--harmonious, calm, subtle
analogous colors
next to each other on color wheel, harmonious effect
triadic colors
combo of three primaries, three secondaries, or three tertiaries, lively
warm colors
roy, seem to advance
cool colors
gbv, seem to recede
local color
true color of object or area as seen in normal daylight irrespective of effects of distance or reflections from other objects
optical color
effect of lighting on color
arbitrary color
colors chosen for emotional or aesthetic impact
texture
how things would feel if touched
visual texture
illusion of textured surface, patterened lines, contrasting light and dark for rough
principles of composition
means that artists use to organize the elements of art in a composition: rhythm, movement, balance, pattern, contrast, emphasis, variety, proportion, and unity: formal properties
rhythm
movement or pattern, created through repetition
alternating rhythm
two or more motifs used alternately
motif
single element of a pattern
symmetrical balance
elements of composition repeated on both sides of the central axis, stable, formal, architecture
approximate symmetry
shapes and objects slightly varied on either side of central axis
asymmetrical balance
visual balance achieved through organization of unlike objects, complex, position of objects, detail, and texture used
focal point
point where the eye rests
proportion
size relationships in a composition
scale
dimensional relation of the parts of a work to the whole or overall size of artwork
When were the standards for human proportion established?
2500 years ago in Greek classical period
What was the height of the human figure initially determined to be
7.5 heads high
golden mean
ratio between two dimensions of a figure so that the smaller is to the larger as the larger is to the sum of the to (3:5, about)
unity
overall harmony or congruity
proximity
placement of separate objects close together or in groups
hatching
technique used in drawing, lines placed side by side
crosshatching
criscrossed lines to create shading
stippling
different values using pattern of dots
pigments
finely ground materiaals used to make paint color
binder
holds grains of pigment together and allows paint to adhere to surface (egg yolks, oil, wax)
solvent
used to thin or thicken paint and change its drying time (oil or water)
fresco
painting technique in which aretist mixes pure pigments with water and applies them to a plaster ground (buon=wet, secco=dry)
when were oil paints widely used
1400s
what is tempera and what are its drawbacks
water-based paint, narrow tonal range, must be used fast
glazes
thin transparent layers applied over another color to alter it slightly
impasto
oil pt applied thickly or in heavy lumps
when was the pt tube invented and what was its impact
late 19th century, artust painted outside, impressionism, mixing
encaustic
wax-based pt used in ancient Egypt, fused with hot irons
gouache
water-besed, like tempera but better quality
watercolor
transparent, light to dark, not forgiving of mistakes
relief printmaking
artist cuts away parts from plate, and the remaining parts will print the image
brayer
ink roller
burnisher
tool used in printmaking to force ink onto paper
intaglio
lines incized, ink laid into the lines then forced out to make image
engraving
cutting lines into the surface of the plate
etching
design incised in wax, then put in acid that etches the exposed metal, the ink transfers
lithography
image drawn with wax on plate, saturated with water, ink then ony sticks to wax and is pressed
screen printing
photograph is transferred to fabric stetched on a frame, ink forced through screen
collage
mixed media type
slip
liquid clay
throwin
pots created on a wheel
kiln
oven for baking clay
lost wax-casting
cire perdue, original form made from wax, encased in plaster, molten metal poured in then finished with tools
fibers
both woven and non-woven materials
soft sculpture
sculpture made from fibers and stuffed
when was glass first made
3rd millenium BC
architecture
art and science of designing and constructing buildings
post-and-lintel
long beam placed horizontally across posts (parthenon)
who developed concrete
Romans