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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stored program
a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer’s memory
Computer
Device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output
Mainframe computer
Processes data for hundreds of thousands of users
Supercomputer
One of the fastest computers in the world
Server
supplies client computers with data
computer system
refers to a computer and all the devices that are connected to it
Peripheral devices
enhance the functionality of a computer
Data becomes information
when it is presented in a format that people can understand and use
file
is a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium
Application software
Set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task
System software
Helps the computer system monitor itself and function efficiently
Most popular computer platforms
PC & Mac
Internet
is a collection of linked computer networks
Internet backbone
Main communication routes
ISP
Internet Service Provider
World Wide Web
Collection of files that can be linked and accessed using HTTP
HTML tags
tell the browser how to display information on the Web page
Browsers
fetch and display Web pages
query
describes the information you want to find
Keywords & Search Operators
Three types of e-mail systems widely used today:
POP
IMAP
Web-based e-mail
A POP server
is a computer that stores your incoming messages until they can be transferred to your hard disk
Numeric data
Binary number system
Character data
ASCII, Extended ASCII, and Unicode
Digitizing
is the process of converting analog data into digital format
File headers
contain information about the code used to represent file data
Bits
take the form of electrical pulses that can travel over circuits
An integrated circuit (computer chip
is a super-thin slice of semiconducting material
The computer’s main circuit board is called the
system board, or motherboard
microprocessor
is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions
Benchmark tests
gauge the overall speed of a microprocessor
Random Access Memory
is a temporary holding area for data
File System
keeps track of the names & locations of files
NTFS-
FAT32-
NTFS
Master File Table
(newer)
FAT32
File Allocation Table
Token Ring Technology
2nd most popular
Personal computers typically feature (RAM)
between 128 MB and 2 GB of RAM
RAM speed
SD and RD (fastest)
The ROM BIOS
tells the computer how to access to hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM
CMOS Memory
requires very little power to hold data
Magnetic storage
stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surface
Optical storage
stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on the disk surface
Solid state storage technology
stores data in a low-power chip
CMOS Memory
requires very little power to hold data
Magnetic storage
stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surface
Optical storage
stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on the disk surface
Solid state storage technology
stores data in a low-power chip
Blu-Ray DVDs
Largest- 25 GB of Data Storage
A CRT
display device uses a bulky glass tube
Plasma screen
technology illuminates lights arranged in a panel-like screen
An LCD
manipulates light within a layer of liquid crystal cells
Graphics circuitry
generates the signals for displaying an image on the screen
ink jet/laser printers
ink jets spray ink and laser printers work like photocopiers
Dot matrix printers
produce characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires
Expansion cards
are small circuit boards that give the computer additional capabilities
An expansion port
passes data in and out of a computer or peripheral device
Multitasking –
allowing two or more programs to be in memory
at same time
Multithreading
– allows parts of one
or more programs to run
at same time
Multiprocessing
able to process two or more programs at same time
The bootstrap program
is stored in ROM and supplies the instructions to load the OS when the system “boots” up
The kernel
provides the most essential operating system services and stays in RAM always until computer is shut down
Mail merge
automatically creates personalized letters
A query language such as SQL (Structured Query Language)
provides a set of commands for locating and manipulating data
Software Suites
Software sold in packages
Vertical market software
is designed to automate specialized tasks in a specific market or business
Horizontal market software
is generic software that just about any type of business can use
(end-user license agreement)
EULA
Bandwidth
The capacity of a network for carrying data
Broadband /Narrowband
PAN
Personal Area Network
NAN
Neighborhood Area Network
LAN
Local Area Network
MAN
Metropolitan Area Network
WAN
Wide Area Network
GAN
Global Area Network
Client/Server
Server is the most important resource
Workstation
peer-to-peer every comp. is an equal resource
Physical Topology
arrangements of a device in a network
Node
each connection point on a network
Bridge
connects 2 similar networks
Gateway
joins 2 dissimilar networks
Router
looks at IP addresses & decides where info. will be sent
CAT 5
twisted pair cable- wired network
Fiber Optic Cable
uses mini lasers to flash light through tubes
Digital Channel Signals
stepped wave- zeros and ones
analog signal
smooth wave
High- band width
broadband
Low Bandwidth
narrowband
Packet
a piece of data sent accross a computer network
VOIP
allows telephone calls & programs like games to run on same line
LAN
standardized by IEEE
Ethernet
most popular- 10Mbps- 10Gbps
Networks
Wi-Fi Wireless
Lan
Ethernet
Home PNL/PLC
FDDI
Fiberoptics
Collision
2 data systems try to send data at same time
Nubs
link workstations w/ cables
WEP
encrypts data traveling over wireless networks
bluetooth
short-range wirless technology- 30 ft.
Home PNA
utilize existing phone wiring
Home PLC
transmit data over power lines
Ping
find out whether a site is up and running
Traceroute
utility records a pocket's path
TCP/IP
primary protocols response for message transmission
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
IP
address identify comps. on the internet
Static/ dynamic
Static
permenantly assigned & unique
Dynamic
temporarily assigned by IP
Domain Names
names for internet servers have certain extensions
ICANN
controls Internet Names
ex. of Domain Names
.biz, com, edu, gov, info, int, mil, net, org
POTS
transports data between computer & ISP
Modem
Converts digital signals to analog signals