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172 Cards in this Set

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MIS
Management Information Systems
Used to write up summary and exception reports
Digitize
Convert non-digital or analog info. into a digital format
Dithering
Reducing size of graphics file- using color patterns of at least 2 colors
Vector Graphics
creates images from descriptions that determine lines, etc.
Table
Arrangement of data in grid
Record
Way to manage fields of data that pertain to a single entity in a database
Field
The smallest unit of information contained in a data file.
Different Fields (date, time, currency)
Use to help organize database
Key Field
File containing data unique to a record- no 2 fields are alike
Joining Tables
Finding similarities between 2 tables
Network Topology
Configuration or design of a communication network between computers
UNIVAC
1st commercially successful digital computer
John Mauchly
-Co-Creator of Eniac
-Inventor Univac
Konrad Zuse
German- 1st general purpose program- control calculator- (first computer)
RFP
Request for Proposal-Document sent by organizations to vendors to solicit proposals- specifies problems
RFQ
Request for Quotation-Document sent by an organization to vendors requesting a formal price quote on Software
Defragment Disk
Store files in contiguous clusters- to regain peak performance on your disk
System Development Lifecycle phases
Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation, Maintenance- cyclical
Malware
Malicious Code caught in anti-spyware
Full Backup
backup all files
Incremental backup
copy of files that changed since last backup
Differential backup
copy of all files that changed since last full backup
Legacy system
Outdated system
GIF file
Graphic Interchange Format- use on web
Animated GIF
Displays sequence of pictures to create illusion of movement
JPEG
-Joint Photographic Experts Group
- uses lossy compression to store bitmap images
bitmap graphic
Stored as a gridwork of colored dots (pixels)
COLOSSUS
-Early prototype using binary data representation
-Used during WWII to decode encrypted messages by ENIGMA
HTTP
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
- used to transmit web pages
HTTPS
secure network
b2b, b2c, c2c
Business to business, business to consumer, consumer to consumer
Cookie
-Message sent from web server to browser
- stored on user’s hard disk
–keeps track of what you’ve done on internet
Access &
combining criteria
Access Or
- multiple criteria on separate lines
total/summation query
Finds sum of all criteria
Calculated field
Computed from other fields use ":"
( ex: Hours Worked : [ytd earnings] / [hourly rate] )
Wildcard
A letter and * represents letters after
Ex: B*
Peer to peer network
-Computers work as both file servers and clients
-Computer to computer network
Client Server
Server connected to multiple computers
Color Depth
# of bits determines range of possible colors that can be used.
Pixelated
Increasing size decreases quality of picture
Volitile & Non- Volitile
Describes data (RAM) which can only exist with the constant supply of power
File name
what you name your file
File extension-
set of numbers or letters that helps identify file contents or type
(ex: .doc)
Assembly Language
-Low- leve
-uses simple commands that are translated into machine language by an assembler
Machine Language
Low-level language written in binary code that the comp. can access directly
RAM
Random Access Memory
- holds data, program instructions, and operating system while computer is ON
Absolute Referencing
Uses $ signs to reference cells that change
IP
Internet Protocol
-1 of Main protocol of TCP/IP
-addresses packets for routing to their destinations
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
-1 Main protocol TCP/IP
-est. data connections btwn. 2 hosts and breaks data into packets
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
- computer used to send e-mail
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
-transfers files between local and remote host computers
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer
- provides secure data transfer over the internet
SMS
Short Message Service
Texts – uses less airtime
MMS
Multimedia Service
-on cell phone- sending pics
PING
Packet internet Groper
- Command on TCP/IP network
-sends a test packet to a specified IP address and waits for a reply
SQL
Structured Query Language
-Used my mainframes and micro computers
HTML
Hyper-Text Markup Language
-Used to specify layout for web page documents
XHTML
Extended Hypertext Markup Language
- upgraded version of HTML
Magnetic Storage
Recording data by magnetizing particles of an oxide based surface coding
Optical Storage
Recording data as light and dark spots
Control Structures:
Instructions specifying the sequence in which a program is to be executed
Sequence-
programming construct which alters the order in which instructions are executed
Selection-
tells a computer what to do depending on whether a condition is true or false
Repetition-
repeats one or more instructions until a certain condition is met
Multi-tasking operation system
The ability of a operating system to run more than one program, job, or task at the same time.
Network Operation System
Designed to control the flow of data, maintain security & keep track of accounts on a network
Single User Operating System
Designed for one user at a time with one set of input devices
Mulit user Operating System
- allows one computer to deal with multiple processing requests
ENIAC
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
- prototype designed for US Army to calculate trajectory tables completed in 1945
Structured Problem
- Well-established procedure for obtaining best solution
Unstructured Problem
No est. procedure for getting a solution
Semi- Structured Problem
-General Procedure is est. but requires discretionary judgement to arrive at a solution
Pilot
- activating a new information system at one branch of a multi- branch company
Direct
- Deactivation of old system and installment of new one
Parallel
-Old Computer system still used but some of new system installed
Strategic Planning
Developing long range goals for an organization
Tactical Planning
- short term decisions
- deploys human, financial, natural resources necessary to meet strategic goals
Structured Planning
- long and short term goals combined
Disaster Recovery
Securing equipment and data against disaster
To Code a Program
Instructions that form a program or the process of writing one
Centralized Programming
- data processed on a centrally located computer (mainframe)
De- Centralized Programming
- data processed on multiple mainframes
Host Computer
Main connection point for other computers or terminals
TPS
Transaction Proccessing System
-Keeps transactions for an organization by providing ways to collect, display, modify, and cancel transactions
MIS
Managing Information System
-Manipulates data collected by transaction processing system
EIS
Executive Information System
-Decision support system
-provides senior managers with relavant info. to strategic activities
DSS
Decision Support System
-Allows decision makers to manipulate data directly
and use external data to create data models or what-if scenerios
ES
Expert System
-Incorporates knowledge from human experts, analyzes data, produces reccomendation
Pixel Interpolation
-Averages the color of adjacent pixels in an image
MIPS
Millions of Instructions per second
- measures speed at which a computer executes instructions
FLOPS
Floating Point Operations Per Second
– measurement of speed where system can process calculations w/floating point numbers
-often used in the context of HPC systems
Control Unit
- part of ALU- directs and coordinates processing
ALU
Arithmetic Logic Unit
- part of CPU
- performs arithmetic and logical operations on #’s in its registers
Register
- Sratchpad area
- where data and instructions are moved to be processed
CPU parts
Control Unit
ALU
Register
UNIX & windows: LINUX & macos
All Operating Systems
Packet Switching
-used by data comm. Networks (internet)
-a message is divided into packets for transmission
COMPUTER
Circuit Switching
- Used by telephone network to temporarily connect one telephone to another for a call
TELEPHONE
LCD Monitor
-Liquid Crystal Display
- flat panel computer screen found on notebooks
CRT Monitor
- Cathod Ray Tube
- display technology that uses large vaccum tube similar to tv sets
Virus
-Malicious computer code
-designed to replicate itself into the other programs stored in a computer
- may be benign or negative
Algorithm
Abstract or general procedure for solving a problem (pseudo code, structured, English, or flow chart)
Terminal
-Input/ Output device w/ keyboard and screen
- has no storage capacity and very limited processing capability
Coaxial Cable
- constructed of a center wire surrounded by braided wire used for cable and nodes
Fiberopical Cables
- bundle of thin tubes of glass used to transmit data as pulses of light
kila, mega, giga, tera, peda
Thousand, million, billion, trillion, 15 zeros
Operating System Software
- controls computers use of hardware resources
Application Software
Help you perform a specific task such as word processing
HPC-
High Performance Computing
-Computer science
- optimizes the processing capabilities of computers to better handle compute- intensive tasks
Grid Computing
-network of diverse computers
-each is treated as a generic and equal processing resource
Enterprise Computing
-Use of one or more information systems that share data and provide info. to hundreds or thousands of users in diverse locations
Rendering
Creating a 3-D solid image by covering a wire frame drawing and applying computer generated highlights and shadows
IF statements
Used to assign a value to a cell based on a logical test
VLOOKUP
Used for a vertical table to look up values in tables
Order
Moving from left to right in a formula
– Order of Operations
Pivot Table
-Summarizes large amounts of info.
-can be manipulated to show the data from different points of view
Serial Processing
- Processes data one instruction at a time
Parallel Processing
- Simultaneous use of more than one processor to execute a program
Trojan Horse Virus
Appears to perform one function while actually doing something else such as inserting a virus or stealing a password
Logic Error
- Run time error in the logic or decision of a computer program
Time Bomb
times when a virus shows up
Data Center
house and protect computer systems and data
Windows Registry
-Crucial set of data files
-maintained by operating system containing settings needed to correctly use hardware and software
CMOS
Complimentary Metal Oxide Semi-conductor
- chip that requires little power to hold data
- powered by small battery
Clock Speed
How fast computer works
OS Kernel
Core module of an operating system, manages memory, processes tasks, disks
Motherboard
Main cicuitboard in a computer houses chips
RISC
Reduces Instruction Set Computer Microprocessor chip
– rapid and efficient processing of a small set of instructions
CISC
Complex Instruction Set Computer
- general purpose microprocessor chip
– handles more instructions than RISC
Unit testing
completed application module to make sure it operates correctly
Integration testing
completed modules to ensure they operate correctly together
URL
Uniform Resource Locator- address of web page
Domain Name
familiar website names
IP address
Unique identifying numbers assigned to each computer connected to the internet
HTML tags
<B>
<i>
<br>
<A HREF=>
<img_src>
<Body BG Color=>
<ul>
<title>
Quality of Service
QLS-
-level of performance of computer system
-measured by factors such as down time, and capacity
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
- represents characters as a series of 1s and 0s
– represents txt to transfer between computers
Unicode
-16 bit character representation code
- can represent more than 65, 000 characters
ROM
Read Only Memory
- One or more integrated circuits
-contains permanent instructions computer uses during boot process
BIOS
Basic Input Output System
- tells comp. how to access hardisk, find operating system, and load into RAM
LAN
Local Area Network – interconnected group of comps. Located in limited area
Wireless
- use infrared or radio signals to transmit data from one network device to another
Firewall
analyzes and controls packets on a network
-enhances security by filtering out potential intrusion attempts
Solid State Storage
Records data and stores it in a microscopic grid of cells on a non-volitile, erasable, low-power chip
Syntax Error
Results when an instruction doesn’t follow the syntax rules or grammar of the programming language
Logic Error
Run time error in the logic or design of a computer program
MPP
Massively Parallel Processing
- links multiple processors each with its own bus, memory, and operating system
Modulation
changing characteristics of a signal
De-Modulation
changing a received signal back to its original state
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
- transfers files between local and remote host computers
Command Line Interface
requires users to type commands rather than using mouse to click on graphics
Graphical User Interface
features on screen objects such as menus and icons you click on with a mouse
Virtual Memory
Use of hard disk storage to simulate RAM
BIT
smallest unit of info. handled by comp
- 1 of 3 values either 0 or 1
BYTE
8 bits which represents a letter or number
Outsourcing
- use of independent contractors to perform specific jobs or tasks
Off Shoring
- corporate practice of re-locating production service over seas to lower cost
Bootstrap/Loader Program
-Stored in ROM
- loads and initializes the operating system on a computer
Response Time
-Time it takes to fulfill a request
- Measured beginning when a user initiates a request for info. and ends when the request is filled
Broadband
- refers to communication channels that have high-bandwidth
Narrowband
- communication channels with low bandwidth
Hypertext
way of organizing an information database by linking information using text and multimedia to help the development of the web
DSL
High- speed internet connection that uses existing telephone lines requiring close proximity to a switching station
Downstream Transmission
transmitted data that flows from the host or server to a local computer
Upstream Transmission
transmitting data from home computer to internet
Downloading
transmitting copy of file from remote computer to local computer’s disk drive
Uploading
- process of sending copy of file from local comp to remote comp
NIC
Network Interface Card
Expansion board mounted inside computer to allow access to a LAN
Gateway
- used to join 2 dissimilar networks by converting data sent from one network into a format compatible to the receiving network
Router
- examines the IP address of incoming data and forwards to its destination
Resolution
Denisty of grid used to display or print texting graphics
-higher horizontal and vertical density = higher resolution