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54 Cards in this Set

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_______ is the feeling associated with the physiological need to eat.
hunger
______ is the desire to eat
appetite
______ ______ are foods believed to be beneficial and or to prevent disease.
Functional foods
______ is the science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the essential elements of foods eaten.
Nutrition
Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water are known as ___________
Nutrients
A ______ is a unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy obtained from a particular food.
Calorie
The ________ process foods are broken down and absorbed or excreted by the body.
Digestive
_______ is fluid secreted by the salivary glands: enzymes in the fluid aid in the breakdown of certain foods for digestion.
Saliva
________ tube transports food from the mouth to the stomach
Esophagus
________ is a large muscular organ that temporarily stores, mixes, and digests food.
Stomach
The _____ intenstine is a muscular coiled digestive organ consisting of the duodenum, jejunun and ileum.
Small intestine
_______ is abnormal depletion of body fluids
Dehydration
_________ are the essential constituents of nealry all body cells necessary for the development and repair of bone, muscle, skin, and blood.
Proteins
Amino acids are necessary for ________ ________
the building blocks of protein
Essential amino acids _____________________________
are nine of the basic nitrogen containing building blocks of proten that must be obtained from foods to ensure health.
_______ proteins contain all of the nine essential amino acids
Complete (high-quality)
______ proteins are lacking in one or more of the essential amino acids.
Incomplete
_________ are basic nutrients that supply the body with the energy needed to sustain normal activity
Carbohydrates
Simple sugars provide _____ ______ energy
short term
Complex carbohydrates provide _______ _______
sustained energy.
_________ is a simple sugar that contains only one molecule of sugar.
Monosaccharide
_________ is a combination of 2 monosaccharides.
Disaccharide
_________ is a complex carbohydrate formed by the combination of long chains of saccharides.
Polysaccharide
________ is fiber ( a major form of complex carbohydrates)
Cellulose
_______ is the polysaccharide form in which glucose is stored in the liver.
Glycogen
_____ is the indigestible portion of plant foods that helps move foods through the digestive system and softens stools by absorbing water
Fiber
____ are basic nutrients composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms, needed for the proper functioning of cells insulation of body organs agains shock, maintenance of body temperature, and healthy skin + hair.
Fats
_________ are excess calories consumed and converted into triglycerides stored as body fat.
Triglycerides
_________ is a form of fat circulating in the blood that can accumulate on the inner walls of arteries.
Cholesterol
_______ is the cholesterol buildup on the inner walls of arteries causing narrowing of the channel through which blood flows - asterosclerosis.
Plaque
______ is compounds that transport the cholesterol in the blood to the liver for metabolism and elimination from the body.
HDL - high levels = lower risk
______ is compounds that facilitate the transport of cholesterol in the blood to the body's cells
LDL - high levels = high risk
______ is a toxic condition caused by overuse of vitamin supplements
Hypervitaminosis
______ are inorganic, indestructible elements
Minerals
_______ are minerals that the body needs in fairly large amounts
Macrominerals
_____ minerals the body needs in only very small amounts.
Trace
_______ is ron deficiency disease that results from the body's inability to produce hemoglobin
Anemia
____ is iron deficiency disease characterized by craving for certain foods and substances.
Pica
__________ is iron toxicity due to excess consumption
Hemochromatosis
__________ are substances believed to protect active people from oxidative stress and resultant tissue damage at the cellular level.
Antioxidants
_________ are fat soluble compounds with antioxidant properties.
Carotenoids
_________ is a type of vitamin b believed to decrease levels of homocysteine, an amino acid that has been linked to vascular diseases.
Folate
Recommended dietarty allowances are_____________________
the average daile intakes of energy and nutrients considered adequate to meet the needs of most healthy people.
Adequate intakes are _______________
best estimates of nutritional needs.
Tolerable upper intake level is ________________________
the highest amount of a nutrient that an individual can safely consume
Dietary Reference Intake is ___________________________
26 essential vitamins and minerals developed by US researchers
USRDA
recommended daily allowance
Reference daily intake is _____________
Recommended 19 vitamins and minerals known as micronutrients
Daily reference values are __________________________
recommended amounts for micronutrients such as total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.
Daily values are ______________________
seen on food and supplement labels
what is food irradiation?
Treating foods with gamma radiation from radioactive cobalt, cesium, to kill microorganisms.
What are food alergies?
an overreaction by the body by the body producing antibodies triggering allergic symptoms
Food Intolerance is?
adverse effects resulting when people who lack the digestive chemicals needed to break down certain substances eat those substances.
Organically grown is foods grown without the use of _________ and __________
without pesticides and chemicals.