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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the data and information theory?
Data consists of raw facts.
Information is a collection of facts organized in such a way that they have value beyond the facts themselves.
What is information literacy?
An individual's level of facility with information.
A particular knowledge base or skill set.
Understanding of information in a business.
What is computer literacy?
Knowledge of computer systems and equipment and the ways they function. It stresses equipment and devices (hardware), programs and instructions (software), databases, and telecommunications.
What is an information system?
A set of interrelated elements or components that collect (input), manipulate (process) and store, and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective. The feedback mechanism helps organizations achieve their goals, such as increasing profits or improving customer service.
What is systems thinking?
The application of formal systems theory and concepts to problem solving.
What is modeling?
An abstraction or an approximation that is used to represent reality.
Types of Modeling
Narrative, physical, schematic, mathematical, change model
Narrative modeling
description, reports, logical
Physical modeling
tangible, constructed
Schematic modeling
graphs and charts
Mathematical modeling
Change model (steps)
unfreezing, moving, refreezing
Competitive Advantage - Five Force Model
competitive advantage is a signficant and (ideally) long-term benefit to a company over its competition
What are the five forces?
rivalry among existing competitors, threat of new entrants, threat of substitutions (products/services), the buyer's bargaining power, the supplier's bargaining power
Competitive Advantage - Value Chain
providing value to the stakeholder - customer, supplier, manager, or employee - is the primary goal
What is the value chain?
series of activities that include inbound logistics, warehouse and storage, production, finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service
What are the levels of management?
strategic, tactical, operational, non-management employees
What is open source code?
software that is free to study, change, and improve its design (example: Linux)
What is data hierarchy?
organized, beginning with the smallest piece of data used by a computer and then progressing upward to a database
Hierarchy of Data (low to high)
bit, byte/character, field, record, file, database
What is the general communication theory?
source --> transmitter --> channel --> receiver --> destination
transmission of a sifnal by way of a medium from a sender to a receiver
How many types of internet business models are there?
Types of internet business models
virtual storefront, information broker, transaction broker, online marketplace, content provider, on-line service provider, virtual community, portal, syndicator, auction, dynamic pricing, banner ad
Virtual storefront
sells goods/services online
Information broker
provides info on products, pricing, etc.
Transaction broker
buyers view rates/terms from various sources
Online marketplace
concentrates info from several providers
Content provider
content for a fee, advertising
On-line service provider
support service for hardware, software products
Virtual community
chat room, online meeting place
initial point of entry to the web
aggregate information from serveral sources sold to others
electronic clearinghouse - products, prices change in response to demand
Dynamic pricing
real-time interactions between buyers and sellers determine price of items
Banner ad
graphic display used for advertisng, linked to advertiser's website
What is decision making theory?
component of problem solving
intelligence --> design --> choice
What is problem solving theory?
intelligence --> design --> choice --> implementation --> monitoring
potential problems or opportunities are identified or defined
alternative solutions to problem are developed
selecting a course of action
solution is put into effect
decision makers evaluate the implementation
What is the nature of intelligence?
emphasis is on developing machines with intelligent behavior
What is intelligent behavior?
ability to learn from experiences and apply knowledge acquired from experience, handle complex situations, solve problems when important info is missing, determine what is important, react quickly and correctly to a new situation, understand visual images, process and manipulate symbols, be creative and imaginative, use heuristics
Stages in the Theory of Strategic Information Systems Planning
Organizational Level
Department/Division Level
Individual Project Level
Stage One
Organizational Level:
vision --> organization mission statement --> organizational goals --> organizational objectives
Stage Two
Department/Division Level:
assessment of organizational goals and objectives --> set IS mission statement --> IS goals --> IS objectives
Stage Three
Individual Project Level:
assessment of organizational requirements --> assemble master development plan --> resource requirement plan --> evaluate project --> develop project plan
What is the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?
systems investigation, systems analysis, systems design, systems implementation, systems maintenance and review
What are drawbacks to SDLC?
inflexible, user cannot use solution until complete
Understand problem, understand solution, select and plan best solution, place solution into effect, evaluate results
Steps in SDLC
Topics in Change Management Theory
resistance to change, reducing resistance to change, change strategies, socialization of change theory
Reasons for Resistance to Change
fear of unknown, economics, inconvenience, threat to interpersonal relations
How do you reduce resistance to change?
build trust, discuss upcoming changes, involve employees in changes, make sure changes are reasonable, avoid threats, sensible time schedule, implement in most logical place
What are the change strategies?
fear, coercion, socialization
What is the socialization of change theory?
understanding the need (rational) and discussing need in groups (socialization), planning response (rational) and participation in planning response (socialization), implementing/monitoring change (rational) and communication/feedback about change (socialization)
What is the general security theory?
deterrents, preventives, detectives, corrective measures
What is a deterrent?
administrative policies and visible security
What is a preventive?
security software and physical restraints
What is a detective?
security software and internal controls
When do you take corrective measures?
a system has been abused and the abuse is detected
What is the theory of ethics?
responsibility of business to its stockholders and owners
What is the new view of ethics?
responsible to everyone including society as a whole