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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hardware
to the physical equipment used for the input, processing, output, and
storage activities of a computer system.
Central processing unit (CPU)
Central processing unit (CPU) manipulates the data and controls the tasks performed by the other components
Primary storage
Primary storage is internal to the CPU; temporarily stores data and program instructions during processing.
Secondary storage
Secondary storage is external to the CPU; stores data and programs for future use.
Input technologies
Input technologies accept data and instructions and convert them to a form that the computer can understand.
Output technologies
Output technologies present data and information in a form people can understand
Communication technologies
Communication technologies provide for the flow of data from external computer networks (e.g. the Internet and intranets) to the CPU, and from the CPU to computer networks.
Server Farms
Server Farms: massive data centers that contain thousands of networked computer servers.
Virtualization
Virtualization: using software to create partitions on a single server so that multiple applications can run on a single server.
Grid computing
Grid computing involves applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time.
Utility computing
Utility computing (also called subscription computing and on-demand computing) is when a service provider makes computing resources and infrastructure management available to a customer as needed for a charge based on specific usage rather than a flat rate.
cloud computing
cloud computing, tasks are performed by computers physically removed from the user and accessed over
a network, in particular the Internet.
Edge Computing
Edge Computing: process where parts of Web content and processing are located close to the user to decrease response time and lower processing costs.
Autonomic Computing
Autonomic Computing: systems that manage themselves without direct human intervention.
Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology refers to the creation of materials, devices and systems at a scale of 1 to 100 nanometers (billionths of a meter).
A plug computer
A plug computer is a tiny server for use in the home. It is a lower cost and lower power
alternative to a PC-based home server.
Microsoft Seadragon
Seadragon is software, called Photosynth, capable of assembling static photos into a synergy of
zoomable, navigatable spaces.
Multimedia technology
the computer-based integration of text, sound, still images, animation and digitized motion video.
Merges capabilities of computers with televisions, VCRs, CD players, DVD players, video and audio recording equipment, music and gaming technologies.
Microprocessor
Microprocessor made up of millions of microscopic transistors embedded in a circuit on a silicon chip.
Control unit
Control unit sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them and controls the flow of data to and from the ALU, the registers, the caches, primary storage, secondary storage and various output devices.
Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU)
Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) performs the mathematic calculations and makes logical comparisons.
Registers
Registers are high-speed storage areas that store very small amounts of data and instructions for short periods of time.
Binary form
The form in which data and instructions can be read by the CPU – only 0s and 1s.
Machine instruction cycle
Machine instruction cycle: The cycle of computer processing, whose speed is measured in
terms of the number of instructions a chip processes per second.
Clock speed
Clock speed: The preset speed of the computer clock that times all chip activities, measured in megahertz and gigahertz.
Word length
Word length: The number of bits (0s and 1s) that can be processed by the CPU at any one time.
Bus width
The size of the physical paths down which the data and instructions travel as electrical impulses on a computer chip.
Line width
Line width: The distance between transistors; the smaller the line width, the faster the chip.
Moore’s Law
Moore’s Law is that microprocessor complexity would double every two years as a result of the following changes:
--Increasing miniaturization of transistors.
--Making the physical layout of the chip’s components as compact and efficient as possible.
--Using materials for the chip that improve the conductivity (flow) of electricity.
--Targeting the amount of basic instructions programmed into the chip.
Bit
Bit: Short for binary digit (0s and 1s), the only data that a CPU can process.
Byte
Byte: An 8-bit string of data, needed to represent any one alphanumeric character or simple mathematical operation.
Primary storage
Primary storage or main memory stores three types of information for very brief periods of time:
Data to be processed by the CPU;
Instructions for the CPU as to how to process the data;
Operating system programs that manage various aspects of the computer’s operation.
Primary storage takes place in chips mounted on the computer’s main circuit board, called the motherboard.
Registers
Registers: Registers are part of the CPU with the least capacity, storing extremely limited
amounts of instructions and data only immediately before and after processing
Random access memory (RAM)
Random access memory (RAM): The part of primary storage that holds a software program
and small amounts of data when they are brought from secondary storage.
Cache memory
Cache memory: A type of primary storage where the computer can temporarily store blocks of data used more often
Read-only memory (ROM)
Type of primary storage where certain critical instructions are safeguarded; the storage is nonvolatile and retains the instructions when the power to the computer is turned off.
Optical storage devices
A form of secondary storage in which a laser reads the surface of a reflective plastic platter.
Compact disk, read-only memory (CD-ROM)
A form of secondary storage that can be only read and not written on.
Digital video disk (DVD)
An optical storage device used to store digital video or computer data.
Flash memory
non-volitile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed.
Thumb drive
a flash memory device that fits into Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports on personal computers and other devices.
Enterprise storage system
An independent, external system with intelligence that includes
two or more storage devices.
An enterprise storage system that links groups of standard hard drives to a specialized microcontroller that coordinates
the drives so they appear as a single logical drive.
An enterprise storage system that links groups of standard hard drives to a specialized microcontroller that coordinates the drives so they appear as a single logical drive.
Storage area network (SAN)
An enterprise storage system architecture for building special,
dedicated networks that allow rapid and reliable access to storage devices by multiple servers.
Network-attached storage (NAS):
A special-purpose server that provides file storage
to users who access the device over a network; plug-and-play.