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326 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the microscopic study of the structures, composition and function of tissues called?
Histology
What is the science which deals with the formation, structure and function of cells?
Cytology
What is the study of the nature and cause of disease which involves changes in structure and function?
Pathology
To what does the word part "gyneco" refer?
female
What medical term describes one who has no appetite?
anorexic
What is the medical term that means below?
inferior
What is the medical term for fingers or toes?
phalanges
What is the medical term for painful or difficult urination?
dysuria
What is the medical prefix that refers to pain?
dys
What is the medical term for red blood cell?
erythrocyte
What is the medical term for white blood cell?
leukocyte
What is the medical term which means fibrin is destroyed?
fibrinolysis
What is the medical term that means hardening of the arteries?
arteriosclerosis
What is the medical term that means excessive vomiting?
hyperemesis
What is the medical prefix that means "too much"?
hyper
What is the medical term for a benign fatty tumor?
lipoma
What is the medical term means dissolving a stone?
litholysis
What is the medical term for a gall stone?
Cholelith
What is the medical term pertaining to the tongue and throat?
glossopharyngeal
What is the medical term for profuse bleeding?
hemorrhage
What is the correct term for excessive amounts of urine?
polyuria
What is the term used to mean the number of calories of heat that must be
produced per hour to keep the baby alive, awake, and comfortably warm?
basal metabolic rate
What is the correct term for no production of urine?
anuria
What is the correct term for high blood sugar?
hyperglycemia
What is the correct term for sugar in the urine?
glycosuria
What is the term for low blood sugar?
hypoglycemia
What is the proper term for blood vessels getting larger in diameter?
vasodilation
What is the medical term for profuse sweating?
diaphoresis
What is ABG the abbreviation for?
arterial blood gases
What does the abbreviation CT stand for?
computed tomography
What does the abbreviation D/C mean?
discontinue
What suffix refers to pain?
algia
What is the abbreviation for iron?
Fe (F must be capitalized)
What is FSH the abbreviation for?
follicle stimulating hormone
What is gtt the abbreviation for?
drop
What is HCT the abbreviation for?
hematocrit
What is IVP the abbreviation for?
intravenous pyelogram
What is the abbreviation meaning after meals?
pc
What is the abbreviation meaning before meals?
ac
What is the abbreviation meaning every?
q
What is the abbreviation meaning every other day?
qod
What is the abbreviation for "as needed" or "whenever necessary"?
prn
What medical term means "immediately"?
stat
What is the abbreviation for what is commonly referred to as a stroke?
CVA
What medical term means "as desired"?
ad lib
What does the medical abbreviation "D & C" mean?
dilatation and curettage
What does the abbreviation "c" with a line over it mean?
with
What does the abbreviation "s" with a line over it mean?
without
What does the abbreviation T.I.D. mean?
three times a day
What does the abbreviation Q.I.D. mean?
four times a day
What does the abbreviation h.s. mean?
hour of sleep
To what organ do the prefixes: hepa, hepar, or hepato refer?
liver
What is the correct medical term for a physician who diagnosis's disorders
of the eye?
ophthalmologist
What is the term for a physician who studies and interprets x-rays?
radiologist
What is the medical term for earache?
otalgia
What is the term which means the rate at which an illness occurs in a
particular area or population?
morbidity
What is the medical term for lateral curvature of the spine?
scoliosis
What is the Latin term meaning "in an artificial environment" or "outside the body"?
in vitro
What is the formal medical term for an umbilical hernia?
omphalocele
What is the term for a pregnancy that occurs outside the uterine cavity?
ectopic
What is the term that refers to shrinkage of muscle tissue due to decrease in activity?
atrophy
What term refers to the normal formation and development of blood cells in the bone marrow?
hematopoiesis
Symptoms that are experienced and described by the patient but not
observed by others are referred to as what?
subjective
What are symptoms that are perceptible to others called?
objective
What is a prefix meaning "without or not"?
a
What do the initials COPD stand for?
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
What is the term pertaining to an agent that destroys or damages tissue cells?
cytotoxic
What is the medical term for double vision?
diplopia
What is the medical term for incontinence of urine, especially at night, or bed-wetting?
enuresis
What is the medical term for excessive gas in the digestive system?
flatulence
What term describes a disease or condition without a known cause?
idiopathic
What do the initials REM stand for?
rapid eye movement
What term describes the process in which two organs, substances, or
agents work simultaneously to enhance the function and effect of one another?
synergy
What medical term describes ringing in the ears?
tinnitus
What is an organic substance that initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction?
enzyme
What is a muscle which draws a part away from the median plane of the body called?
abductor
What is the medical term that means fatty or pertaining to fat?
adipose
What is the chemical symbol or abbreviation for silver
Ag (the A must be capitalized)
What is the medical term meaning absence or loss of hair?
alopecia
What term refers to the cessation of breathing?
apnea
What term refers to the accumulation of serous fluid (edema) in the peritoneal cavity?
ascites
What term refers to a sensation preceding a seizure
aura
What is the term by which any substance that produces or incites cancer is known?
carcinogen
What is a substance which speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
without itself being permanently altered in the reaction called?
catalyst
What is the medical term for a bluish, grayish, or slatelike discoloration
of the skin due to oxygen deficiency called?
cyanosis
What is the medical term meaning evacuation of the bowels?
defecation
What term refers to the division of sex cells?
meiosis
What term means closed, plugged, or obstructed?
occluded
What term refers to a foreign substance or thrombus that circulates in the blood stream until it becomes lodged in a vessel?
embolus (must be exact)
What is the medical term for vomiting?
emesis
What is the medical term for nose bleeding?
epistaxis
What is the medical term referring to the causes of disease?
etiology
What is the term for any tiny entity capable of carrying on living which
may be pathogenic?
microorganism
What medical term describes an increase in the size of an organ or
body structure which does not involve tumor formation?
hypertrophy
What is the medical term for jaundice or pigmentation of the tissues with bile pigments?
icterus
What prefix means in the midst of or between?
inter
What prefix means within?
intra
What term refers to hidden, concealed or not active?
latent
What is the medical prefix for white?
leuko
What is the medical prefix for stone or calculus?
litho
What is the prefix for large?
macro
What is the prefix meaning small in size?
micro
What prefix means one or single?
mono
What prefix means many or much?
poly
What term refers to the ability to move spontaneously?
mobile
What is the medical term for mumps?
infectious parotitis
What prefix refers to muscle?
my
What medical term describes dead tissue surrounded by healthy parts?
necrosis
What prefix refers to a tumor or cancer?
onco
What prefix refers to the ovary?
oophor
What term refers to a surgically formed artificial opening?
ostomy
What suffix means removal of?
ectomy
What prefix indicates disease?
path
What is the medical term for whooping cough?
pertussis
What is a drug with no medicinal effect that is given to satisfy a patient's
demand for medication or is used in test situations where one group receives
the actual medication and the other group receives this?
placebo
What term refers to the prediction of the course and end of a disease
and the estimate of chance for recovery
prognosis
What term means a tendency to relapse or to return to a former condition?
recidivism
What is an abnormal condition that follows and is the result of a disease?
sequela
What do the initials STD stand for?
sexually transmitted disease
What is the instrument used for determining arterial blood pressure?
sphygmomanometer
What term describes the stagnation or standing still of normal flow of fluids?
stasis
What term refers to an abnormally rapid heart beat?
tachycardia
What term means pertaining to touch?
tactile
What is the medical/biological science concerned with detecting and
studying poisonous substances and establishing antidotes?
toxicology
What is a continuous, involuntary quivering of a convulsive nature called?
tremor
What infection is being tested for when one receives a Mantoux test?
tuberculosis
What term means an open sore or lesion of the skin or mucous
membrane accompanied by sloughing of necrotic tissue?
ulcer
What is the term that describes an inflammatory condition of the liver?
hepatitis
What is the medical term for chicken pox?
varicella
What is the medical term for dizziness?
vertigo
What does the abbreviation LDL mean
low density lipoprotein
A syllable or word placed at the beginning of a root word is called a:
prefix
What is the medical abbreviation for nothing by mouth?
NPO (must be capitalized)
What does the abbreviation G/C stand for?
geri-chair
What does the abbreviation OS stand for?
left eye
What is the abbreviation for both eyes?
OU
How should direct statements by the client be documented in the medical record?
by quotation marks
What does the word element nephro mean?
kidney
What does the word element -lysis mean?
loosening, dissolving
What does the word element necro mean?
death
What does the word element -ology mean?
study of
What does the word element neuro mean?
nerve
What does the word form cardio refer to?
heart
What was the first drug law passed in the United States?
Pure Food and Drug Act
What are the rules that ensure uniform strength, quality and purity of drugs?
drug standards
What is the term that means the way drugs act on body cells?
pharmacodynamics
What is a liquid drug in a heavy sugar and water solution with flavoring called?
syrup
What is the term for a drug that is to be taken under the tongue?
sublingual
What is the abbreviation for centimeter?
cm
How many grains equal one gram?
15
What is a drug which stops the growth of bacteria called?
antibiotic
What is a drug which stops coughing called?
antitussive
What classification of drugs would be ordered for an individual who has a fever?
antipyretic
What is a high school reaction to a drug which may be beneficial or harmful?
side effect
What is an antigen-antibody response to a drug that may result in
danger to the patient?
allergic reaction
What is a tablet that doesn't dissolve until it reaches the small intestine called?
enteric coated
What is a drug that acts at the site of application called?
local or topical
What usually happens to the pupils of a shock victim?
they dilate
What type of fracture is not a complete break?
greenstick
What element is capable of stopping the passage of radiation?
lead
What area of the face is most sensitive to x-ray exposure?
lens of the eye
Give the normal range of months by which time all twenty primary teeth
have usually erupted?
24 to 30
What is the stage of periodontal disease involving loss of bone that supports teeth called?
periodontitis
What is the artificial replacing of one or more teeth with a fixed prosthesis
called?
bridge
What teeth are enervated by the inferior alveolar nerve?
mandibular posteriors
What happens to the x-ray film if the temperature of the developer is too
low?
will produce a very light image
What gland is located below and in front of the ear?
the parotid
What term describes the unconscious grinding of teeth?
bruxism
What is the name of the instrument used to test one's hearing?
audiometer
What is blurring of vision due to an abnormal curvature of the cornea called?
astigmatism
What term is used to indicate listening for sounds produced by the
body?
auscultation
What term is used to refer to the inner surface of the arm at the elbow?
antecubital
What is the term that describes a microorganism which can live and
grow only in the presence of oxygen?
aerobe
What is the name of the support group for family members of
alcoholics?
AL-ANON (all caps required)
What is the excision of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination?
biopsy
Name the part of the microscope substage that regulates the amount of light directed on a specimen.
iris diaphragm
If pancreatitis is suspected, what test is usually performed?
amylase
What is the breathing pattern characterized by alternating periods of
apnea and hyperventilation called?
cheyne-stokes
What is the procedure whereby ultra high-frequency sound waves are
directed toward the heart to evaluate its function and structure?
echocardiogram
What term is used to describe quivering of cardiac muscle fibers which produces ineffective, rapid but weak heart action?
fibrillation
What term describes the spread of cancer from one organ of the body to
another?
metastasis
What is the medical term for the onset of menstrual periods?
menarche
What is the term used to describe the period of time immediately
following the delivery of a baby?
postpartum
What is the name of the instrument used to measure the volume of
exhaled air?
spirometer
What is the condition called which results from a decrease in the
amount of calcium stored in the bones?
osteoporosis
What is the term given for having had nothing to eat or drink for a specific period of time?
fasting
Name the condition where a patient has overwhelming attacks of sleep
which cannot be overcome?
narcolepsy
What is an x-ray of the breast called?
mammogram
What is the name of the chronic lung disease characterized by over distention of the alveolar sacs and inability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide?
emphysema
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, what are the needs to be met after the physiological needs?
safety and security
What is the partition that separates the two nasal cavities called?
nasal septum
What are the two main tubes to the lungs called?
bronchi
What is the cluster of capillaries located at one end of the nephron called?
glomerulus
What is the tube called that carries urine from the bladder to the outside?
urethra
Which endocrine gland is the largest?
thyroid
What hormone regulates the metabolic rate of body cells?
thyroxin
What do lacrimal glands secrete?
tears
Which gland produces a hormone which regulates the amount of calcium dissolved in the circulating blood?
parathyroid
Name the female gonad.
ovary
What is the 20 foot tube in which the spermatozoa mature and become motile?
epididymis
Name the cartilage associated with the larynx which bends over the laryngeal opening to direct food into the esophagus.
epiglottis
What is the valve between the small and large intestine called?
ileocecal
What is the first part of the small intestine called?
duodenum
What membrane lines the eyelids?
conjunctiva
What cranial nerve carries impulses for smell?
olfactory
What is the region or junction at which a nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another called?
synapse
What lobe of the cerebrum interprets visual messages?
occipital
What kind of glands are those which secrete hormones into the blood stream?
endocrine
What is the anatomical term that indicates a structure nearer its origin?
proximal
What are the desired end products of carbohydrate digestion?
monosaccharides
What is a protein that is deficient in one or more essential amino acids called?
incomplete
What is the protoplasm inside the cell membrane called?
cytoplasm
Name the three kinds of muscles and tell whether it is voluntary or involuntary.
skeletal, voluntary (any order)
smooth, involuntary
cardiac, involuntary
What are the hardest structures in the body, which are constructed primarily of calcium?
teeth
List three accessory organs of digestion.
liver, gallbladder, pancreas (any order)
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
calcium
What is another name for the master gland?
the pituitary gland
What is the medical term for the collar bone?
clavicle
What muscle abducts the arm and caps the shoulder?
deltoid
What is the kissing muscle of the lips called?
orbicularis oris
What artery supplies blood to the head and the neck
carotid
What is the name of the longest vein of the body?
saphenous
Name two of the three types of hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex.
any order) glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoid, androgens
Name the two types of cells in the islets of Langerhans that produce hormones.
(any order)
Alpha and Beta
What hormone stimulates the "fight or flight" response to an emergency?
epinephrine
The body may be divided into three imaginary planes. Which plane runs lengthwise from the front to the back dividing the body into right and left sides?
sagittal
The body may be divided into three imaginary planes. Which plane cuts the body horizontally into an upper and lower portion?
transverse
Which bands of connective tissue anchor bones together?
ligaments
What is the body's first line of defense against pathogens?
skin
How many cervical vertebra are there in the vertebral column?
seven
What is the medical term for the knee bone?
patella
What is the medical term for the lower arm bone on the thumb side?
radius
What is the medical term for the lower arm bone on the little finger side?
ulna
What is the longest and strongest bone of the body?
femur
What is the name of the hip socket into which the head of the femur articulates?
acetabulum
What is the projection of the ulna known as the elbow or "funny bone" called?
olecranon process
What is the movement in certain types of joints that decreases the angle between two adjoining bones called?
flexion
What is the movement in certain types of joints that increases the angle between two adjoining bones called?
extension
Name the outer membrane covering the brain and spinal cord.
dura mater
Name the mucous membrane lining the inner surface of the uterus.
endometrium
What is the progressive wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract called?
peristalsis
What is the tough connective tissue membrane that covers the bone called?
periosteum
What are the coverings of the brain and spinal cord called?
meninges
What is the liquid part of the blood known as?
plasma
Blood in the right ventricle is kept from being pumped back into the
atrium by the action of what structure?
tricuspid valve
What stimulates the initiation of the heart beat?
sinoatrial node
The coronary arteries branch off what blood vessel?
ascending aorta (Be specific, only correct answer)
Name the lymphatic organ that plays a key role in immunity and becomes adipose tissue later in life?
thymus
Where is the Circle of Willis located?
in the brain
Name a glandlike structure in the brain that is shaped like a pine cone, located in a pocket near the corpus callosum. The exact function of the gland is unknown.
pineal body
What nerve is known as the pneumogastric or 10th cranial nerve, has both motor and sensory functions and a wider distribution than any of the other cranial nerves?
vagus
What blood vessels generally carry blood low in oxygen content?
veins (must be plural)
What are the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder called?
ureters (must be plural)
Iron is a necessary component of what part of red blood cells?
hemoglobin
How many glasses of liquid should be consumed daily by an adult?
six to eight
What are the 46 thread-like substances in the nucleus of a human cell which carry hereditary characteristics called?
chromosomes
What are the basic structural units of nerve tissue called?
neurons
What is the body system called that includes the hair, nails, and skin?
integumentary
What is another name for the excretory system?
urinary
What is a localized dilation or balloon-like swelling that may occur as a result of weakness in the wall of an artery?
aneurysm
What is the response of damaged tissues to injury which is characterized by swelling, redness, heat, and pain?
inflammation
How many ribs are there in the human body?
12 pairs
Which of the endocrine glands produces hormones which regulate the growth of the body, especially the skeleton?
pituitary
What nutrient comprises about 58% of the body weight?
water
What are protease, lipase and amylase examples of?
enzymes
What mineral is essential for regular heart rhythm and is found in meats, oranges, and bananas?
potassium
What disease can be caused by a parasite sometimes found in pork?
trichinosis
What type of diet should help reduce edema?
low sodium
Name the four fat soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K (any order)
What nutrient is the cheapest and most abundant of the energy
nutrients?
carbohydrates
Where is Vitamin A stored?
in the liver
Why should vegetables be boiled with little water?
to avoid loss of water soluble vitamins
What organ functions to produce bile and store glycogen, fats, proteins, and vitamins?
liver
What is the tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach called?
esophagus
What is the presence of air in the pleural cavity called?
pneumothorax
What is the bone that forms the upper jaw?
maxilla
What is the bone that forms the lower jaw?
mandible
What vitamin deficiency will affect bones?
D
What are the basic building blocks of proteins called?
amino acids
Which nutrients require a longer time for digestion?
fats
What mineral may need to be increased in the diet of a patient with anemia?
iron
What meat contains three times as much thiamine as other meats?
pork
What are the receiving chambers of the heart?
atria
What are the discharging chambers of the heart?
ventricles
What is the part of the nervous system that is concerned with control of involuntary bodily functions?
autonomic
Name three functions for the skeletal system?
(any three: any order)
protection
movement
mineral storage
production of blood cells
support
Which part of the central nervous system controls heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and swallowing?
medulla oblongata
Name the two phases of ventilation.
(any order) inspiration , expiration
How many servings of milk are recommended for a teenager daily?
three
What is a serving size for lean meat, fish or poultry for the meat group?
2–3 oz
Where does most of the nutrient absorption take place?
small intestine
Which nutrient is best to provide a burn patient's need to build new tissue?
protein
What are the four kinds of taste receptors of the tongue?
(any order) sweet, sour, salty, bitter
What are two of the three functions of food?
(any two, any order) provide energy, build and repair body tissues, regulate and control body's chemical processes
Name four of the six prime nutrient classifications.
(any four in any order) carbohydrates, vitamins
fats, minerals, protein, water
What do the initials RDA stand for?
Recommended Daily Allowance
What is the term used to describe a state in which a prolonged lack of one or more nutrients retards physical development or causes the appearance of specific clinical conditions?
malnutrition
According to the food pyramid, which food group supplies significant amounts of calcium, riboflavin, and protein?
milk, yogurt, and cheese
According to the food pyramid, which food group supplies a significant amount of protein, niacin, iron, and thiamin?
meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts
Citrus fruit is recommended for the daily intake of what vitamin?
C
One grain equals how many mg?
60
Five hundred mg equals how many grams?
0.5
Thirty minims equals how many milliliters?
2
How many ounces equals one cup?
8
How many tablespoons of liquid equals 2 ounces?
4
You have available vials of a substance labeled 75 mg in 1.5 ml. The order reads to give 60 mg. How many ml should you administer?
1.2 ml
What is an injury resulting in an over stretching of muscles called?
a strain
What is a displacement of a bone end from a joint?
dislocation
If Aspirin comes labeled 5 gr/tab and you want to take 600 mg. How many tablets would you take?
2
Baby A grows 3/8 inch in length in January and grows 7/16 in February. How many total inches did the baby grow?
13/16
A medical assistant fills a storage cabinet with 14 bottles of dextrose. Each bottle is filled with 16 2/3 ounces of the solution. How many ounces of this solution are in the cabinet?
233 1/3 oz
The $125,000 supply budget for maintenance contracts must be reduced by 1/10. How much money will be left in the budget?
$112,500
If 1.5 grams of a drug are administered B.I.D. to each of 12 patients, how many grams of the drug will be used in 30 days?
1080 g
If flu shots cost a clinic $0.50 and the clinic charges $5.00 per flu shot, what is the gross profit for a clinic that administers 178 flu shots?
$801.00
A weight-loss clinic records the following weight losses for the following patients:
A lost 2.938 kilograms
B lost 3.891 kilograms
C lost 1.216 kilograms
D lost 0.112 kilograms

What was the average weight loss? (take answer out to 3 places after decimal point)
2.039 kg
If 500 gowns are needed in each of 8 examination rooms and the available supply is 2938, how many more gowns need to be ordered?
1062
How many cc's are in a water glass, small bowl and a juice glass?
The following graph reads: water glass = 240 cc
small bowl = 120 cc
juice glass = 100 cc
In an eight hour shift, a patient on I & 0 drank 3 glasses of water, one small bowl of broth, and one juice glass of apple juice. What was his total intake for the shift?
940 cc
Who originated the use of carbolic acid on wounds to kill microorganisms and prevent infection?
Joseph Lister
Who discovered X-rays?
Wilhelm Roentgen
Who invented the microscope and established that there was life smaller than the eye could see.
Anton von Leeuwenhoek
Who discovered that microorganisms were everywhere and invented the process of pasteurization?
Louis Pasteur
Who is known as the "father of microbiology"?
Robert Koch
About the 5th century, a Greek physician wrote a code of ethics for medical practice. Who was he?
Hippocrates
Who is the founder of modern nursing?
Florence Nightingale
Accepted abbreviations for :
ounce, grain, gram, tablet, kilogram,milligram, milliliters, cubic centimeters, tablespoon
oz=ounce
gr= grain
g= gram
tab, tabs, tablets = tablet(s)
kg= kilogram
mg=milligram
ml=milliliters
cc= cubic centimeters
T, Tbp, tablespoon = tablespoon