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26 Cards in this Set

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Leonardo Bruni
(1374-1444)
leading humanist writer, chancellor of Florence, and translator of works of Plato and Aristotle
Baldasarre Castigilone
(1478-1529)
Italian diplomat, courtier, auther of THE COURTIER, which describes conduct of perfect aristocratic courtier
Erasmus of Rotterdam
(c. 1466-1536)
Dutch humanist, proponent of learning and intellectual tolerance, auther of THE PRAISE OF FOLLY
Marsilio Ficino
(1433-1499)
humanist philosopher and propoonent of Neoplatonism
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527)
statesman, author of THE PRINCE, describes the means by which a prince may acquire and maintain his power
Pico de Mirandola
(1463-1494)
Italian philosopher and humanist, represented "The ideal man" because of his physcl beauty and inner harmony
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535)
English statesman, ardent humanist, and author of UTOPIA, which pictures an ideal state where all is ordered for the best interest of humanity as a whoe and where the evils of society such as poverty and misery, have been eliminated
Lorenzo Valla
(c. 1407-1457)
Italian humanist chosen by Pope Nicholas V to translate Herodotus and Thcydides into latin
Act of Supremacy 1534
act of the English Parliament that recognized Henry VIII as the "Supreme Head of the Chrch of England"; repeald in 1555 by Mary I
Act of Supremacy and Uniformity
1558-1559
the reinstatement during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, of the original Act of Supremacy 1534, which again recognized the English monarch as the head of the Chruch oif England, above the authority of the pope
Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation)
efforts in teh 16th and early 17th centuries to oppose the Protestant Reformation and reform the Catholic Church
Conciliarism
a reform movement in the 14&15th cs. that was propelled by the belief that the final authority in spiritual matters resided with a general church council, not w/Roman catholic Pope
Council of Constance 1414-1418
an ecumenical council of the Church that was charged with ending the Papal Schilsm resulting from the Avignon Papacy
Council of Pisa 1409
rather unsuccessful council whose purpose was to mitigate the effects of the Great Schism in teh Catholic Church
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in three sessions b/w 1545 and 1563 to redefine Roman Catholic doctrine, abolish various cclesiastical sbuses, and strengthen the papacy
Ghibelline
member of hte party that favored the Holy Roman emperors in medieval Italy and opponent of the pro-papal Guelfs
Guelf or Guelph
in medieval Iatly, a supporter of the Roman Catholic Papacy and an opponent of the Ghibellines
Holy Roman Empire
label adopted under the reign of Frederick I Barbarossa for a complex of lands in Western adn Central Europe; pruportendly a continuation of the Roman Empire, the Holy Roman Empire was later ruled by the Habsburg dynasty from the 15 to 19 century
Humanism
philosophical focus of the Renaissance that emphasized the wroth of the individual and the potential for individual achievement
l'uomo universale
a well rounded person; the typical "Renaissance Man," as described in Castilione's THE COURTIER
Neoplatonism
a blend of the teachings of Plato and other ancient philosophers with the teachings of the Church; in Renaissance Italy the primary philosophy by which artist rationalized their more secular works
Ottoman Empire
former empire centered in Anatolia and named for Osman I (1259-1326) a Turkish Muslim prince; Ottoman troops first invaded the Balikan peninsula in Europe in 1345
Peace of Westphalia 1648
a settlement that marked the end of the Thirty Year's War, which included separately negotiated treaties b/w Spain, the Dutch, France, Sweden, and German princes
Reformation (Protestant)
the movement that marke a break w/Roman Catholicism adn led to the establishment of Protestant churches in 16th c. Europe
Scholiasticism
a medieval theological and philosophical movement that sought to integrate secular understanding (aristotelian thought) w/Christianity
Spanish Armada
naval fleet sent by Philip II of Spain in 1588 to invade England; its defeat saved England and the Netherlands from being absorbed into the Spanish empire