Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/112

Click to flip

112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a dose wherein no additional analgesia is produced regardless of further dose increases
analgesic ceiling
transient moderate to severe pain that occurs above the pain treated by current analgesic treatment protocol
breakthrough pain
a property of a drug in which increasing the dose beyond an upper limit provides no greater analgesia
ceiling effect
the areas of skin innervated by the sensory fibers of a single dorsal root of a spinal nerve
dermatomes
a dose of one analgesic that is equivalent in pain-relieving effects to another analgesic
equianalgesic dose
the activation of descending pathways that exert inhibitory or faciliatory effects on the transmission of pain
modulation
pain caused by damage to nerve cells or changes in spinal cord processing
neuropathic pain
activation of the primary afferent nerves with peripheral terminals (free nerve endings) that respond to noxious (tissue-damaging) stimuli
nociception
pain that is caused by damage to somatic or visceral tissue and occurs abruptly after an injury or disease, persists until healing occurs, and often is intensified by anxiety or fear
nociceptive pain
an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience arising from actual or potential tissue damage and described in terms of such damage; whatever the person experiencing the pain says it is, existing whenever the person says it does
pain
an analgesic delivery system that allows the patient to receive a bolus infusion of an analgesic on demand within the parameters programmed into the delivery system
patient-controlled analgesia
the state in which pain is recognized, defined, and responded to by the individual experiencing the pain
perception
the state of severe distress associated with events that threaten the intactness of the person
suffering
dose adjustment based on assessment of the adequacy of analgesic effect versus the side effects produced
titration
the conversion of a mechanical, thermal, or chemical stimulus into a neuronal action potential
transduction
movement of pain impulses from the site of transduction to the brain
transmission
a circumscribed hypersensitive area within a tight band of muscle that is caused by acute or chronic muscle strain
trigger point
a potent mineralocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex that maintains extracellular fluid volume
aldosterone
a hormone released from the posterior pituitary gland that regulates fluid volume by stimulating reabsorption of water in the renal tubules
antidiuretic hormone
a hormone produced by the thyroid gland in response to high circulating calcium levels; acts to reduce the blood level of calcium and to inhibit bone resorption
calcitonin
a sympathomimetic compound composed of a catechol molecule and an amine from the amino acid tyrosine; includes epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine; catecholamines secreted by the adrenal medulla are considered hormones; when released from nerve endings, they are considered neurotransmitters
catecholamine
any one of the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, or androgen hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex
corticosteroid
the most abundant and potent glucocorticoid
cortisol
a hormone synthesized and released from pancreatic alpha cells in response to low levels of blood glucose, protein ingestion, and exercise
glucagon
an anterior pituitary hormone that affects the growth and development of skeletal muscles and long bones affecting a person's size and height
growth hormone
a chemical substance synthesized by a specific organ or tissue and secreted directly into the blood, where it is circulated to specific target tissues
hormone
an anabolic hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas that is the principal regulator of the metabolism and storage of ingested carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
insulin
the hormone-secreting portion of the pancreas that includes alpha, beta, and delta cells
islets of Langerhans
a hormone-regulating mechanism in which there is a decrease or increase in hormone synthesis and secretion in response to a stimulus
negative feedback
hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates the blood level of calcium; acts to increase the blood level of calcium and to promote bone resorption
parathyroid hormone
a hormone regulating mechanism in which a high level of a substance stimulates hormone synthesis and secretion and a low level inhibits hormone synthesis and secretion
positive feedback
the body tissue or organ that the hormone affects
target tissue
the most abundant thyroid hormone; accounts for 90% of thyroid hormone produced by the thyroid gland
thyroxine (T4)
the more active thyroid hormone produced by the thyroid gland; 10% is secreted from the thyroid gland and the remainder is obtained by peripheral conversion of T4
triiodothyronine (T3)
a hormone secreted by one gland that stimulates another gland to synthesize and secrete its hormones (i.e., thyrotropin from the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the thyroid gland to synthesize and secrete thyroid hormones)
tropic hormone
a condition caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone characterized by an overgrowth of the bones and soft tissues
acromegaly
a life-threatening emergency caused by insufficient adrenocortical hormones or a sudden sharp decrease in these hormones; also known as an Addisonian crisis
acute adrenal insufficiency
the condition that exists when hypofunction of the adrenal cortex leads to (primary) adrenocortical insufficiency; a lack of pituitary ACTH secretion results in secondary adrenocortical insufficiency, not Addison's disease
Addison's disease
anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates growth of adrenal cortex and stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
hypothyroidism that develops in infancy
cretinism
a spectrum of clinical abnormalities caused by excess corticosteroids, particularly glucocorticoids
Cushing's syndrome
a group of conditions associated with a deficiency of production or secretion of ADH or a decreased renal response to ADH
diabetes insipidus
protrusion of the eyeballs from the orbits caused by increased fat deposits and fluid in the retroorbital tissues
exophthalmos (proptosis)
steroid hormones, primarily cortisol, produced by the adrenal cortex that affect glucose, protein, and fat metabolism and response to stress
glucocorticoids
enlargement of the thyroid gland that may be associated with hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or normal thyroid function
goiter
food or drug that inhibits synthesis of thyroid hormones
goitrogen
an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology marked by diffuse thyroid enlargement and excessive thyroid hormone secretion
Graves' disease
excessive aldosterone secretion caused by an adenoma of the adrenal zona glomerulosa or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia
hyperaldosteronism
a condition involving increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) resulting in increased serum calcium levels
hyperparathyroidism
a hypermetabolic state caused by excessive circulating levels of T4, T3, or both; also referred to as thyrotoxicosis, thyrotoxic crisis, or thyroid storm
hyperthyroid crisis
a clinical syndrome where there is a sustained increase in synthesis and release of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland
hyperthyroidism
a condition associated with inadequate circulating PTH
hypoparathyroidism
a rare disorder that involves a decrease in one or more of the pituitary hormones
hypopituitarism
insufficient circulation of thyroid hormones resulting in a hypometabolic state
hypothyroidism
steroid hormones, primarily aldosterone, produced by the adrenal cortex that maintain extracellular fluid volume; synthesis and secretion are stimulated by angiotensin II, hyponatremia, and hyperkalemia; inhibited by atrial natriuretic factor and hypokalemia
mineralocorticoids
the progression of the mental sluggishness, drowsiness, and lethargy of hypothyroidism to a notable impairment of consciousness or coma that is a medical emergency
myxedema
a rare condition characterized by a tumor of the adrenal medulla that produces excessive catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine)
pheochromocytoma
adrenocortical insufficiency resulting from adrenal cortex dysfunction
primary adrenocortical insufficiency
adrenocortical insufficiency resulting from a lack of pituitary ACTH
secondary adrenocortical insufficiency
an abnormal production or sustained secretion of ADH despite normal or low plasma osmolarity that causes fluid retention, serum hypoosomolality, and dilutional hyponatremia
syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
a condition of neuromuscular hyperexcitability associated with sudden decrease in calcium levels
tetany
an inflammation of the thyroid gland that may cause hyperthyroid or hypothyroid manifestations
thyroiditis
a hypermetabolic state caused by excessive circulating levels of T4, T3, or both; also referred to as thyrotoxic crisis, thyroid storm, or hyperthyroid crisis
thyrotoxicosis
uptake of nutrients from the gut lumen to the blood stream
absorption
a pigment derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin
bilirubin
audible abdominal sounds produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis
borborygmi
softening, fissuring, and cracking of lips at angles of mouth
cheilosis
the elimination of feces from the gastrointestinal tract through the rectum; involves a reflex action with voluntary and involuntary control
defecation
swallowing
deglutition
the physical and chemical breakdown of food into absorbable substances
digestion
the direct visualization of a body structure through a lighted instrument (scope)
endoscopy
vomiting of blood that indicates bleeding in the upper GI tract; may be bright red or of "coffee ground" character
hematemesis
liver cells
hepatocytes
taking in food
ingestion
macrophages found in the liver that remove bacteria and toxins from the blood
Kupffer cells
black, tarry stools that indicate slow bleeding from an upper GI source
melena
a discharge of purulent material
pyorrhea
burning in epigastric or substernal area; heartburn
pyrosis
bulky, foul-smelling, yellow-gray, greasy stools with puttylike consistency
steatorrhea
spasmodic contraction of the anal sphincter with pain and persistent desire to empty the bowel
tenesmus
a maneuver that involves contraction of the chest muscles on a closed glottis with simultaneous contraction of the abdominal muscles
Valsalva maneuver
minute, finger-like projections in the mucous membrane that are the functional units of the small intestine
villi
an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas
acute pancreatitis
accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal or abdominal cavity as a result of portal hypertension
ascites
flapping tremor (liver flap) commonly affecting the arms and hands that is a manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy
asterixis
digestion of tissues by their own secretions
autodigestion
Severe pain that is produced from spasms of the biliary ducts when gall stones are lodged in or move through the ducts
biliary colic
inflammation of the biliary ducts
cholangitis
surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystectomy
inflammation of the gallbladder
cholecystitis
calculi in the common bile duct
choledocholithiasis
stones in the gallbladder
cholelithiasis
progressive destruction of the pancreas with fibrotic replacement of pancreatic tissue
chronic pancreatitis
chronic, progressive disease of the liver characterized by extensive degeneration and destruction of the liver parenchymal cells
cirrhosis
distended, tortuous, fragile veins at the lower end of the esophagus that result from portal hypertension
esophageal varices
a musty, sweet odor of the patient's breath that occurs in some patients with hepatic encephalopathy
fetor hepaticus
a clinical syndrome that results in severe impairment or necrosis of liver cells and potential liver failure
fulminant viral hepatitis
Changes in neurologic and mental function resulting from high levels of ammonia in the blood that a damaged liver cannot detoxify
hepatic encephalopathy
inflammation of the liver
hepatitis
a serious complication of cirrhosis characterized by functional renal failure with advancing azotemia, oliguria, and intractable ascites
hepatorenal syndrome
term referring to jaundice
icteric
symptom of yellowish discoloration of body tissues that results from an increased concentration of bilirubin in the blood
jaundice
a large fluid-containing cavity within the pancreas resulting from extensive necrosis in the pancreas
pancreatic abscess
a cavity continuous with or surrounding the outside of the pancreas, filled with necrotic products and liquid secretions
pancreatic pseudocyst
a procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a cavity of the body
paracentesis
increased venous pressure in the portal circulation caused by compression and destruction of the portal and hepatic veins and sinusoids resulting in splenomegaly, large collateral veins, ascites, systemic hypertension, and esophageal varices
portal hypertension
enzyme produced by the pancreas that causes hydrolysis of proteins
proteolytic enzyme
small, dilated blood vessels with a bright-red center point and spider-like branches
spider angiomas
metabolic product resulting from bacterial conversion of conjugated bilirubin in the bowel that gives the characteristic brown color to feces
stercobilinogen
a tube placed in the common bile duct during surgery when a common bile duct exploration is part of the surgical procedure; maintains patency of the duct until edema produced by the exploration subsides
T-tube
metabolic product resulting from bacterial conversion of conjugated bilirubin in the bowel, a very small amount of which is normally excreted in the urine
urobilinogen
inflammation of the liver caused by a variety of infectious viruses
viral hepatitis