Study your flashcards anywhere!
Download the official Cram app for free >
 Shuffle Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read Toggle OnToggle Off
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
28 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
What's the equation to find the actual vergence demand when using vectos?

Prentice's rule:
P=Fd where F is 2.50 for a 40cm working distance and d is the separation (in cm) of the target 

T or F: When working with vectos, increasing the working distance decreases the vergence demand

T


Vectograms:
1. Which one is a single vecto that has BO>BI within itself? 2. Which vecto consists of a large peripheral target which is perfect for STARTING (TQ) therapy with? 3. Which target has relative BI at the ortho position? 4. Which has different targets with different demands at the ortho position (good for doing step vergence)? 5. In chicago skyline, the plane has relative ____ and the buildings have relative ___ at ortho. This is good for what? (smooth, step or jump?) 6. This vecto has more BO as you go from the center > periphery. 
1. figure 8
2. quoits 3. clown 4. mother goose 5. BI; BO; jump 6. spirangle 

What are the Barrel cards used for?
(TQ) 
convergence tx (ex: CIs)


Vergence tx techniques used LATE in tx:
1. Vectos: (name 2) 2. _______: 30BI>30BO with small targets 3. ______ circles 4. Brock string (what technique)? 5. ______ stereoscope 
1. chicago skyline, spirangle
2. aperture rule 3. eccentric circles 4. bug on a string 5. brewster 

What are the 5 things we can train with brock string?

1. antisuppression
2. fixation (fixing ESO or EXO posture) 3. jumps (although i think this is only convergence therapy so it really is "steps" (?)) 4. NPC work 5. Bug on a string (voluntary convergence) 

Tranaglyph disadvantages:
1. Inequalities in ____ ____ may promote suppression 2. Low contrast of print = low _____ 3. Images printed with outlines only= low ____ 
1. retinal luminance
2. stimulus to fuse 3. stimulus to fuse 

Vergence Tx:
1. BIM makes it ______ for divergence and _____ for convergence. 2. BOP makes it _____ for divergence and _____ for convergence. 
1. difficult; easier
2. easier; difficult 

Classical model vs. BrockFlax model for Vergence tx:
1. Which deals with nonstrabismics who have no impediment to fusion? 2. Which goes from 1st>3rd degree targets? 
1. BrockFlax (classical is strabs/nonstrabs with deep suppression)
2. Classical (BF is 3rd to 1st to gradually decrease cues for stereopsis) 

What 3 conditions (mentioned in the vergence tx packet) accept plus at near?

CE, false CI (really an AI), basic ESO


Prescribing prism (for relief):
1. ____: compensating fusional vergence should be 2 times the phoria. What's the equation? 2. _____: patient should function in the middle 1/3 of their fusional vergence range. What's the equation? 
1. Sheard's; Prism= 2/3(phoria)  1/3(compensating vergence)
Compensating: for an EXO, this would be PFV... 2. Percival's; Prism= 1/3(greater of lateral limits)  1/3(lesser of lateral limits)...negative number: pt doesn't need prism...EXO= negative number is plugged into equation and ESO= positive number plugged in 

What is the preferred method for Rx'ing horizontal relieving prism?

Fixation disparity analysis


What is the AO vectographic slide used for?

Fixation disparity analysis


What are the five stages of vergence tx?

1. Feedback cues
2. Smooth vergence training 3. Step vergence training 4. Jump vergence training 5. Integration (BIM, BOP, versions, saccades) 

How can you make aperture rule a jump therapy tool?

you can use TWO setups!


T or F: The only vectogram that can be used for jump therapy is chicago skyline.

F! All of them can...you just need to use 2 of them..one on BO setting and one on BI setting


With aperture rule, each card has a change of how many prism diopters?

2.5


What's the vision tx sequence for CI?

1. Early: feedback cues (quoits), develop voluntary convergence and feeling of convergence (brock string work), smooth convergence (other vectos), normalize accommodation.
2. smooth divergence (vectos), PFV and NFV facility (step/jump) (vectos, aperture rule, eccentric circles...) 3. convergence>divergence demands, integrate with accommodation and ocular motility demands (BIM/BOP) 

What is the vision tx sequence for CE?

1. Early: feedback cues (quoits), normalize near NFV (smoothvectos w/BI demand), develop feeling of diverging, normalize accommodation.
2. normalize PFV (smoothvectos on BO), normalize PFV and NFV facility (jumpmultiple vectos, dual aperture rule..) 3. convergence>divergence demands, integrate with accommodation and ocular motility demands (BIM/BOP) 

What is the vision tx for DI?

1. Early: feedback cues (quoits), develop feeling of divergence, normalize NFV at NEAR (smoothvectos on BI), normalize accommodation.
2. normalize NEAR PFV (smooth vectos on BO), PFV and NFV facility (step/jump) (vectos (can do multiple), aperture rule (can do dual), eccentric circles...) 3. normalize smooth NFV at INTERMEDIATE AND FAR DISTANCES (vectos on the wall), normalize NFV facility at INTERMEDIATE AND FAR dist. 

What is vision tx for DE?

Phase 1: NEAR tx: feedback cues, train PFV AND NFV using 3rd degree fusion targets, develop diplopia awareness, normalize accomm.
Phase 2: NEAR tx: 2nd and 1st degree targets (wheatstone stereoscope), work on PFV and NFV facility at near (step/jump) Phase 3: INTERMED. tx: 3rd, 2nd and 1st degree targets, PFV and NFV jumps, integrate accomm and oculomotor (BIM/BOP) Phase 4: DISTANCE: all three targets 10>20 ft away, integrate changes in accomm and oculomotor (BIM/BOP) 

Studies:
1. What study suggests that VT works for CI patients? 2. What studies (2name the people) say that VT is good for CE patients? 3. What study (person's name) says VT is good for DE patients? 4. For both basic ESO and EXO, which study (person's name) said VT works? %. For fusional vergence dysfunction, who said VT works? 
1. CITT
2. Ficarra, Gallaway and Scheiman 3. Goldrich 4. Daum 5. Hoffmann 

When is:
1. VT the primary approach? 2. Prism the primary approach? 3. Plus for near the primary approach? 4. What conditions are lenses ineffective (due to the nature of the problem)? 
1. CI, DE, basic EXO, FVD
2. DI 3. CE, basic ESO (and false CI since it's really an AI) 4. low AC/A conditions (CI, DI) 

Is fixation disparity a monocular or binocular phenomenon?

binocular (you find it under binocular fused conditions)


Fixation disparity instruments:
1. Which are near tests? 2. Which is a distance test? 3. Which can plot FVFDC and get the A.P? 4. Which can measure the F.D. magnitude and direction? 
1. Sheedy disparometer and wesson card
2. AO vectographic slide 3. sheedy and wesson (the AO can only get the A.P.!) 4. sheedy and wesson (A.O. can only get direction!) 

What 5 things does graphical analysis fail to identify?

1. AE
2. AInfacility 3. Illsustained accomm 4. FVD 5. OMD 

Graphical analysis:
1. the demand line is dependent on ____. 2. How do you get the AC/A ratio? 
1. IPD
2. 1/slope (run over rise) of the phoria line 

T or F: on graphical analysis, the associated phoria is plotted.

F...dissociated
