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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define abnormality
a psychological condition or behaviour that departs from the norm or is harmful and distressing to the individual or to those around him/her. They violate society's ideas of what is an appropriate level of functioning.
define cultural relativism
The view that behaviour cannot be judged properly unless it is viewed in the context of the culture in which it originates
what is meant by statistical infrequency?
researchers and government collect stats.(e.g shoes size, age when had 1st baby etc) therefore you can tell what the 'norm' is by the most common result (bell shaped graph)
Limitations of statistical infrequency ---> desirable or undesirable?
is all abnormal behaviour undesirable? using stats you are unable to determine desireble behaviour or undesirable that needs to be treated (e.g +ve high IQ -ve but common, depresion)
Limitation of statistical infrequency ---> cultural relativism
behaviours that are statistically infrequent in one culture may be statistically more frequent in another. e.g symptom of schizophrenia is hearing voices but this is desirable in some cultures.
strength of statistical infrequency
In many situations it is appropriate. E.g with mental retardation standard deviation is used to find the 'cut off point' for abnormality.
what is meant by deviation from social norms?
behaviour that is anti-social or undesirable. 'Rules' of ettiquete, moral issues and social norms set by society e.g politeness.
One limitation of deviation from social norms (susceptible to abuse)
social norms (what is acceptable) change over time.e.g now homosexuality is acceptable but before it was a sexual and gender identity disorder. Also, szasz claimed that mental illness was just a way to exclude non-conformists.
One limitation of deviation from social norms (cultural relativism)
social norms are defined by the culture. classification systems (DSM) use the dominant culture in the west yet it was applied to different subcultures.
strength of deviation from social norms
distinguishes between desirable and undesirable. take into account the effects of others. greater good of society.
What is meant by failure to function adequately?
not being able to cope with day to day living. including bizarre behaviour and/or behaviours that distress a patient or others
A limitation of 'failure to function adequately'-->who judges?
someone needs to decide what adequate is. some may be comfortable/unaware of the situation but other people find it uncomfortable. e.g schizophrenics are unaware of the problem but there erratic behaivour worries others.
A limitation of 'failure to function adequately'--> cultural relativism
questions of adquacy is based on the cultures view on how life should be lived.
A strenght of 'failure to function adequately'
recognises the subjective experience of the patient
What is meant by 'Deviation from ideal mental health?'
6 categories
-self attitudes
-personal growth and self actualisation
-accurate perception of reality
-mastery of the environment
limitation of 'Deviation from ideal mental health'--> who can achieve these criteria
according to the criteria most people are abnormal. The criteria are ideal but we need to know how far off this is abnormal.
limitation of 'Deviation from ideal mental health'--> cultural relativism
the criteria are culture bound. when used in non western and even non middle class there are higher levels of 'abnormality'. especially different between individualist and collectivist cultures.
strength of 'Deviation from ideal mental health'
a positive approach---> focuses on what is desirable not undesirable
Assumptions of the biological model
-mental disorders are an illness caused by either genes, biochemical substances, neuroanatomy, micro organisms
-can be tested by twin studies (concordance rate)
-genes can determine levels of hormones/neurotransmitters e.g serotonin
criticism for biological model ---> humane or inhumane?
in 18th century the medical model lead to more humane treatment as mental illness used to be blamed on deamons or evil.
however recently it has been suggested it is inhumane. szasz said mental illness did not have a physical basis and was 'invented' to create social control.
criticism for biological model ---> cause or effect?
it is not clear is abnormal biochemistry/neuroanatomy is a cause or effect of abnormal behaviour. if it is an effect such changes may perpetuate the disorder. however treating symptoms may alleviete suffering.
criticism for biological model ---> Inconclusive evidence
concordance rates are never 100%. It is likely a 'susceptibility' for a disorder is inherited and only developes in stressful conditions (diathesis-stress model)