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38 Cards in this Set

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Psychotherapy
The use of psychological techniques in an attempt to produce change in the context of a special, helping relationship
Eclectic
An approach of picking different treatments to the needs of individual disorders and individual clients
Electroconvulsive therapy (ETC)
A treatment that involves the deliberate induction of a convulsion by passing electricity through one or both hemispheres of the brain. modern ECT uses restraints, medication, and carefully controlled electrical stimulation to minimize adverse consequences. Can be effective treatment for severe depression, especially following the failure of other approaches
psychosurgery
a controversial treatment that involves the surgical destruction of specific regions of the brain. modern psychosurgery involes relatively little destruction of brain tissue, unlike the discredited prefrontal lobotomy
prefrontal lobotomy
a pscyhosurgery technqiue introduced in 1935 y Egas Moniz in which the two hemispheres of the brain were severed. Moniz won a Nobel Prize for the treatment, which is now discredited
psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of psychoactive drugs on behavior. clinical psychopharmacology involves the expert use of drugs in the treatment of mental disorders
psychoactive drugs
various drugs ranging from alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine to controlled substances that affect the individual's psychological state
free association
a basic technique in Freudian psychoanalysis in which patients are encouraged to speak freely about whatever thoughts cross their mind; presumed to give insight into unconscious
pscyhoanalysis
Freud's orthodox form of psychotherapy that is practiced rarely today because of its time, expense, and questionable effectiveness, in treating mental disorders. Freud viewed the task of psychoanalysis as promoting insight by uncovering the unconscious conflicts and motivations that cause pyschological difficulties
insight
self-understanding; the extent to which a person recognizes the nature (or understands the potential cause) of his or her disorder. In psychoanalysis; insight is the ultimate goal, specifically to bring formerly unconscious material into conscious awareness
interpretation
a tool in psychotherapy and psychoanalysis in which the therapist suggests new meanings about a client's accounts of his or her past and present life
psychodynamic
a variation on the Freudian approach that searches for unconscious conflicts and motivations, but does not adhere to Freud literally as in psychoanalysis
ego analysis
originated in the work of different therapists trained Freudian psychoanalysis; but who focus much more on the ego than on the id. ego analysts are concerned with the pateint's dealings with the external world
behavior therapy
an approach to psychotherapy that focuses on behavior change in the present; includes a diverse array of techniques, many of which were developed from basic, pyschological research
behaviorism
the belief within scientific psychology that obseravble behaviors, not unobservable cognitive or emotional states, are the appropriate focus of psychological study
systematic desensitization
a treatment for overcoming fears and phobias developed by Joseph Wolpe. involves learning relaxation skills, developing a fear hierarchy, and systematic exposure to imagined, feared events while simultaneously maintaining relaxation
token economy
a type of contingency management program that has been adopted in many institutional settings. desired and undesired behaviors are indentified, contingencies are defined, behavior is monitored and rewards or punishments are given according to the rules of the economy
social skills training
a behavior therapy technique in which clients are taught new skills that are desirable and likely to be rewarded in the everyday world
cognitive behavior therapy
the expansion of the scope of behavior therapy to include cognition and research on human information processing. includes various general techniques, such as Beck's cognitive therapy and Ellis's RET
cognitive therapy
a pyschotherapy technique and important part of cognitive behavior therapy that was developed specifically as a treatment for depression by Aaron Beck. Beck's cognitive therapy involves challenging negative cognitive distortions through a technique called collaborative empiricism
humanistic psychotherapy
an approach that assumes that the most essential human quality is the ability to make choices and freely act on them (free will). promoted as a 'third force' to counteract the deterministic views of psychodynamic and behavioral approaches to pyschotherapy
client-centered therapy
Carl Roger's humanistic therapy that follows the client's lead. therapists offer warmth, empathy, and genuiness, but clients solve their own problems
empathy
emotional understanding. empathy involves understanding other's unique feelings and persepctives. highlighted by Rogers but basic to most forms of psychotherapy
placebo effect
the improvement in a condition produced by a placebo (sometimes a substantial change) an overriding goal of scientific research is to identify treatments that exceed placebo effects
placebo control group
a group of subjects given a treatment with no known specific ingredients for the purpose of comparison with alternative treatments that are thought to contain specifica therapeutic benefits
double blind, placebo-controlled study
a study in which neither the therapist nor the patient knows whether the patients receives real treatment (for example, medication) or a placebo
couples therapy
partners who are involved in an intimate relationship are see together in psychotherapy; sometimes called marital therapy or marriage, counseling. improving communication and negotiation are common goals
family therapy
treatment that might include two, three, or more family members in the psychotherapy sessions. improving communication and negotiation are common goals, although family therapy also may be used to help well members adjust to a family member's illness
group therapy
the treatment of three or more people in a group setting, often using group relationships as a central part of therapy
insanity
a legal term referring to a defendant's state of mind at the time of committing a crime. an insane individual is not held legally responsible for his or her actions because of a mental disease or defect.
battered woman syndrome
a controversial classification of common psychological effects of spousal abuse. includes a tension-building phase leading up to violence, the battering incident itself, and a stage of loving contrition, during which the batterer apologizes. according to some experts, this induces learned helplessness in battered women
competence
defendant's ability to understand legal proceedings and act rationally in relation to them. competence evaluations can take place at differents points in the legal process, but competence to stand trial (the ability to participate in one's own defense) is particularly important
civil commitment
the involuntary hospitalization of the mentally ill; the decision typically is justified based on dangerousness to self or other (or inability to care for self)
informed consent
a legal and ethical safeguard concerning risks in research and in treatment. includes a)accurate information about potential risks and benefits b) competence on the part of subjects/patients to udnerstand them, and c) the ability of subjects/patients to participate voluntarily
deinstitutionalization
the movement to treat the mentally ill and mentally retarded in communities rather than in large mental hospitals
child abuse
a legal decision that a parent or other responsible adult has inflcited damage or offered inadequate care to a child; may include physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and pyschological abuse
professional responsibilities
a professional's obligation to follow the ethical standards of his or her profession and to uphold the laws of the states in which he or she practices, for example, confidentiality
confidentiality
the ethical obligation not to reveal private communication in psychotherapy and in other professional contacts between mental and health professionals and their clients