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91 Cards in this Set

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introduced in 1938 by Cerletti and Bini.
most effective with severely psychotic patients. However, recent drug therapy has minimized its administration.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
cutting nerve fibers between the frontal lobes and hypothalamus, causing a relaxed state in the patient. After the surgery, patients become calm, manageable, less anxious, but lost intellectual and cognitive functioning.
1930s Moniz
prefrontal lobotomy
barbiturates were replaced by anti-anxiety drugs such as meprobamates and benzodiazepines(librium and valium)
minor tranquilizers
anti-anxiety drugs do not treat symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions. anti-psychotic drugs such as chloropromozine were developed to help these symptoms, especially schizophrenia.
ex. haldol
major tranquilizers
Monoamine Oxidase(MAO) inhibiters and tricyclics have been effective
MAO- prevent breakdown of nor-epiphrine and serotonin in the synapses.
tricyclics (imipramine) have fewer side effects
ex. prozac
Lithium (in the form of lithium carbonate) is effective in treating bipolar disorders and produces opposite effects as anti-depressants. It limits the availability of serotonin and nor-epinephrine in the synapses.
anti-manic drugs
the study of the effects of the drugs on behavior and the brain
The use of drugs has greatly changed therapy. Long hospitilization is no longer needed. However, drugs do not cure mental disorders.
Their continued and timely use control the symptoms of the illness.
as the systematic application of the techniques and psychological principles by a trained person for the helping of troubled people
a. a chance to unlearn, relearn, develop or change certain behaviors
b. helps generate new emotionally important experiences.
c. a thereapeutic relationship between the client (patient) and the therapist.
1)The insight-oriented approaches and 2)the action oriented approaches
2 categories of psychotherapy
the founder of psychoanalysis.
According to this theory, instinctual drives seek gratification. Repressing unacceptable thoughts and impulses cause complexes and symptoms.
The aim of psychoanalysis is to make conscious what is unconcious by uncovering repressed materials.
Explanations of free associations, contents of dreams and other statements made by the patient, which result in gaining insight by the patient.
The patient views the therapist as the target of love or hate, re enacting earlier life conflicts. may be positive or negative.
refers to the therapists feelings towards the patient.
Transference & Counter-transference
The therapist analyzes the reasons for the patients resistance during the therapy sessions.
Analysis of Resistance
dreams are considered "the royal roads to the unconscious". Each dream has two
parts, the manifest and the latent. The latent contents of the dreams are subject of investigations.
Free Association & Dream Analysis
stress the ego autonomy. Among such persons are Anna Freud, Eric Erikson, and Hartmann.
Modern psychoanalysts
The emphasis is on self-actualization, self concept, free will, responsibility and the qualites of humanness.
humanistic and existential therapies
Carl Rogers is the founder of this technique. He believed that in certain therapeutic conditions individuals could move towards self-actualization. To create such a condition, the therapist must accept the client as a person, show empathy and unconditional positive regards.
Person Centered Therapy
a person's experience and involvement in the world as a being is the focus of attention. People loose sense of meaning of life.
This is called existential crisis. Responsibility, choice and freedom are stressed.
Existential Analysis
Fritz Perls is the founder of the technique. It emphasizes a person's totality of experience which should not be fragmented. The stress is on the here and now and on non-verbal communication.
Gestalt Therapy
tokens are exchanged for privileges. This method is used in a variety of settings with a variety of cases.
Punishment is sometimes used to treat autistic or schizophrenic children which involves taking away something reinforcing. Lovaa’s work with autistic children follows the above method.
token economy
operant conditioning
acquisition of new behavior by watching others is possible.
observational learning techniques
Cognitive restructuring is used to change a client’s irrational self-defeating and distorted thoughts and attitudes with positive and appropriate ones.
Cognitive restructuring is used to help clients deal with their irrational thoughts and beliefs. Behavioral rehearsals are given also.
Stress-inoculation training is used to teach people to handle the stresses of their life.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
a. practice-practice tends to increase coping skills
b. preparation against harm- specific actions are taken to reduce or eliminate danger
c. reduction of ambiguity- high anxiety results when a situation is ambiguous. Unknown is more frightening than a known threat.
D. social reassurance and support- people depend on each other for social support, reassurance and confirmation. Support groups are extremely helpful in reducing stress.
Resisting stress: guide principles
an integration of bio-medical sciences with behavioral sciences. The goal is to help people change their life styles to prevent illness or enhance the quality of their lives.

Biofeedback therapy- this method combines physiological and behavioral approaches. A patient receives info or bio-feedback and is rewarded for returning them to normal levels. Patients thru counseling and practice frills learn to control and change their type A behaviors.
Behavioral Medicine
a form of group therapy that modifies relationships within a family to achieve harmony. Focus is on the family as a while and as a unit. The family is a social system that needs to be treated as a whole.
family therapy
Many varieties of group therapies exist. Group experiences allow each client to become involved in a social situation. Therapists can see how a member responds in a real-life and interpersonal context. Group members can develop new communication skills, social skills and insight.
Groups provide an environment of intimate learning and practice. Groups help members to feel less isolated and fearful about their problems.
Groups provide social and emotional supports.
Groups, hoever, cannot give intense attention to individual problems. The sense of intimacy between the therapist and the client is lost in a group.
group therapy
the family system itself contributes to pathological behavior in the family, for example, the family system requires sick person in the family. The family system therapy is directed at the improvements in the organization of the family.
the system approach
Since family problems result from communication difficulties the aim of this technique is to improve more effective and positive communications among the family members.
the communication approach
An increasingly popular treatment technique for couples. Married couples are seen together. The aim is to clarify and improve the communications, interactions and role relationships between the couple. Another similar form is called the couple therapy.
marital therapy
the process of selecting concepts, methods and strategies from a variety of current theories which are effective.
sometimes called inconsistent, contradictory, lazy and unsystematic.
Therapeutic eclecticism
an approach to mental health which takes into account the influences of environmental factors using community resources and agencies to eliminate conditions that cause psychological problems. Pertinent issues include managed health care and the prevention of psychopathology.
Community psychology
antipsychotic drugs that can help treat symptoms of schizophrenia but can produce undesirable side effects that mimic neurological disorders
ex. tardive dyskinesia manifested in thrusting the tongue and smacking the lips.
the likelihood that both members of a twin pair will show the same characteristic- for schizophrenia was nearly three times higher among identical twins hospitalized for more than two years than for those hospitalized less than two years.
concordance rate
disorders that are believed to be genetically related to schizophrenia

ex. such as latent or borderline schizophrenia, acute schizophrenic reactions, etc
schizophrenia spectrum
schizophrenia may result from excess dopamine activity at certain synaptic sites.
dopamine hypothesis
antipsychotic drugs that decrease the severity of thought disorders, alleviate withdrawal and hallucinations and improve the mood of patients with schizophrenia
model involves inherited tendencies combined with the impact of stressors. It is a general model, which stresses the interaction between genetics and the environment stressors. A genetically vulnerable person would not develop psychotic symptoms within a supportive family environment. This model emphasizes both the biological and psychological factors.
The diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia
a sudden stop of blood flow to a part of the brain due to a breakage or blockage of a blood vessel can cause a stroke. Stroke is the 3rd major death in the US. It also can be caused by arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
cerebrovascular accidents or strokes
caused by brain cell deterioration due to aging, which causes memory loss.
Senile dementia
80% of dementia in older people is due to this illness. Marked by deterioration of intellectual and emotional functioning is noted. Symptoms include irritability, cognitive impairment, and memory loss
the fourth leading cause of death in the US
causes atrophy of cortical tissue of the brain
Reduced level of acetylcholine in the brain, exposure to aluminum, infections, etc., may be among causative factors.
Alzheimer’s disease
Symptoms include muscular tremors, stiff gait which gets progressively worse. The disease is associated with lesions in the motor area of the brainstem and diminished level of dopamine in the brain.
l-dopa treats symptoms
parkinsons disease
Dementia may be the first sign including inability to concentrate or perform complex mental tasks. related infections may cause neuropsychological problems.
Syphilis is caused by spirochete Treponema pallidum the spirochete directly damages the brain or the nervous system causing general paresis (psychosis associated with syphilis)
this disorder is caused by brain inflammation due to viral infection. Symptoms include headache, diminished consciousness and delirium.
this disorder is caused by inflammation of the meninges of the brain due to bacteria, virus, or fungi.
a genetically transmitted disorder with symptoms including jerky, rapid and repetitive movements. The first symptoms may be moodiness and depression.
Huntington chorea
a mass of abnormal tissue growing within the brain, which can cause disturbances of consciousness among many others. may be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
one of the earliest recognized cognitive disorders. Momentary or violent convulsions and coma may occur.
The most common and dramatic type of epileptic seizure. Before the seizures, the patient hears an “aura” which is followed by a loss of consciousness. Muscles become rigid and eyes remain open. Jerky movements begin with biting tongue followed by coma, which lasts from a few seconds to a few hours.
grand mal seizures
these seizures typically begin in one part of the body and spread to other parts. They are usually due to a localized and specific brain lesion.
jacksonian seizures
symptoms include loss of consciousness during which a person engages in well organized and normal appearing behavior. All epileptic seizures are caused by excessive neural/electrical discharfes of the brain due to a variety of factors
psychomotor seizures
symptoms include negativistic, argumentative and hostile behavior patterns, defying rules and authority. Persistent patterns of anti social behaviors that violate the rights of others, including fighting, temper tantrums, lying, fire setting, assaults, rape and truant behavior.
oppositional defiant disorder
DSM-IV suggest childhood unset and adolescent onset types. Conduct disorder in adolescents is a serious problem. It leads to anti-social personality and criminality.
etiology of conduct disorder
Psychoanalytic (psychodynamic) view- delinquent behavior is the symptom of underlying anxiety and conflict in the child. Inadequate relationship with parents is a causative factor. Lack of superego development is crucial.
Genetic view- some evidence of genetic inheritance in connection with criminality has been noted.
Behavioral- the child fails to learn to respect the parents and authority lack of consistent discipline is a contributing factor.
Treatment of conduct disorder
Cognitive training appears to be promising. Development of social skills are important. These can be gained thru role modeling, role-playing and use of teaching videotapes.
Until the age of eighteen, a child is diagnosed as conduct disorder. After the age of eighteen, a person is diagnosed as personality disorder.
etiology of conduct disorder
The childhood disorders in which anxiety plays a role include separation anxiety disorder, avoidant disorder and over-anxious children.
Children with separation anxiety disorders seek the company of their parents constantly. Physical complaints and crying are noted. School phobia is one type
separation anxiety disorder
Major depressive episodes can begin very early in life, even in infancy. Symptoms include feelings of sadness, loss of appetite, sleep difficulties and fatigue.
Abuse or neglect are major causes.
childhood depression
Symptoms include involuntary, repetitive and non-rhythmic movements. Most tics are in children are transient.
may persist into adulthood.
tic disorder
Symptoms usually begin in childhood with facial and body tics and what seems to resemble barking sounds.
Tourette’s syndrome
Anxiety and stress are the primary factors in producing and maintaining tic disorders.
Learning theory forwards conditional avoidance responses initially evoked by stress. These responses become habitual thru reinforcement when they reduce anxiety.
Forced practice of tics may bring fatigue, which inhibits the responses. The tic then develops aversive properties and not performing it becomes reinforcing.
etiology of tourettes
habitual urination during day or night in one’s clothing, bed or on the floor.
repeated defecations into one’s clothes, floor or bed. A more serious problem than enuresis
stimulants that increase the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine.
behavioral disturbances that result from transient or permanent damage to the brain
affect thinking, processes, memory, consciousness etc
cognitive disorder
amnestic disorders
cognitive disorders
4 categories of cognitive disorder
measures electrical activity of brain cells
scanning assesses brain damage by means of xrays and computer technology
cat scan
computerized axial tomography
patient inhales radioactive gas and a gamma ray camera tracks the gas and flow of blood
cerebral blood flow measurement
patient is injected with radioactive glucose and the metabolism of glucose in the brain is monitored..assesses brain function
positron emission tomography
patient is placed in a magnetic field and radio waves are used to produce pictures of the brain
magnetic resonance imaging
characterized by memory impairment, and planning and cognitive disturbances
general medical conditions
substance induced persisting (symptoms are related to substance abuse)
multiple etiologies(more than one factor cause the disorder)
causes of dementia
gradual onset and continuing cognitive decline
increases with age
facts about dementia
characterized by disturbance of consciousness and changes in cognition.
develops rapidly over the course of hours or days
reduced ability to focus, disorganized patterns of thinking, incoherent speech
memory impairment as manifested by an inability to learn new info and an inability to recall previously learned knowledge or events. confusion, disorientation.
caused by Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency)
amnestic disorders
Significant subaverage general intellectual functioning
IQ of 70 or less
Concurrent deficiencies in adaptive behavior
onset before age 18
dependency, passivity, low tolerance of frustration, depression etc
mental retardation
mild 70
moderate 50
severe 35
profound below 20
levels of retardation
condition produced by the presence of an extra chromosome and resulting in mental retardation and distinctive physical characteristics

Short fingers, short hands, slanted eyes, protruding tongue, flat and broad face, harsh voice and incomplete or delayed sexual development
down syndrome
a screening procedure in which a hollow needle is inserted into the pregnant woman's abdominal wall and the amniotic fluid is withdrawn from the fetal sac
severe childhood disorders in which qualitative impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication are primary symptoms
affect psychological functioning, language, attention, perception etc
pervasive developmental disorders
qualitative impairment in social interactions and/or communication; restricted, stereotyped interest and activities; delays in functioning in major areas before the age of 3
occurs frequently in boys
autistic disorder
characterized by normal development for at least 5 months and an onset of symptoms between 5 and 48 months including:
delay and impairment of language and social skills
stereotyped hand movements
poor coordination
deceleration of head growth
only in females
retts disorder
at least 2 yrs of normal development, with sudden severe impairment and deterioration
childhood disintegrative disorder
children with this disorder have severe impairment in social interactions and skills, limited repetitive behavior, and lack of emotional reciprocity
asperger's disorder
intensive behavior modification programs
antipsychotic meds (mixed results)
treatment of pdds and autism
characterized by socially disruptive behaviors-either attentional or hyperactivity problems- that are present before age 7 and persist for @ least 6 months
common in boys
attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
predominantly hyperactive-impulsive: heightened motoric activity (fidgeting), short attention span, distractibility, impulsiveness and lack of self-control

predominantly inattentive type: distractibility, difficulty with sustained attention, inattention to detail and difficulty completing tasks (sluggish, anxious, shy)

combined type: most common form.
both criteria are met
3 types of adhd
may be caused by:
central nervous center involvement
certain foods
etiology of adhd
combination of meds and behavioral therapy
treating adhd
Both insight and action-oriented approaches have followers and disbelievers. Some believe clients and therapists both waste time and money.
Using the meta-analysis technique, it was found that treated patients showed more improvements than untreated ones. In general, the higher the quality of the research, the more the results support psychotherapy.
Review of research indicated that psychotherapy is effective. The largest gains in treatment tend to occur within the first few months.
Evaluation of individual psychotherapy
schizophrenics cannot function elsewhere except in the lower class environment, therefore they drift to the lower classes.
The Drift Theory
the symptoms include momentary dimming or loss of consciousness, sometimes with convulsive movements. Seizures last a few seconds and the patient may be unaware of them. This type of epilepsy usually disappears with aging and is controlled by medication.
petit mal seizure