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90 Cards in this Set

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DSM-IV-TR
classification system for abnormal behavior. generally used in the US for official diagnostic and record keeping purposes
International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)
The most recent version of a widely used classificatio system, including all types of disease, that was developed by the WHO.
Reliability
The tendency of a measure or to produce the same results when administered on two different occasions.
Cultural differences
involve belief and value systems, as well as behavioral styles
Ethnic differences
involve descent, physical characteristics, and heritage
Kappa statistic
a type of reliability index that corrects for chance agreement to provide a true estimate of reliability
Validity
the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to or purports to measure
Ethnic identity
The ethnic group which a person considers him or herself to be a part. Often an important factor for immigrants, and for children whose parents are of two different ethnicities. A part of a person's self-concept
Diagnostic interview
interview designed to gather information and assess behavior, usually for the purpose of determining seriousness and outcome, or deciding what treatment approach would be appropriate
Therapeutic interview
interaction between a client and therapist (although perhaps including other family members as well) Designed to help promote change in behavior and attitudes. Another term for a therapy session
Mental status examination
an interview, sometimes supplemented with psychological and neurological tests, used to assess an individual's intellectual function and ability to interact appropriately with the environment
Structured interview
also called standardized interview; use a standard series of questions to determine whether specific symptoms are present
Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); also Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC)
a standardized interview procedure that provides questions, probes, and criteria for a number of different clusters of symptoms. It is widely used in both research and clinical settings
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID)
a diagnostic interview that is less structured thant the widely used DIS; allows the interviewer to ask follow-up questions based on clinical judgment
Intelligence Quotient
traditional way of expressing a person's level of intelligence or deciation of the mean of test performance expected by those of the same age
IQ = 100(MA/CA)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)
a widely used individually administered intelligence test for those over 16 yrs of age. a series of subtests of different types yield a verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ
Verbal IQ
one of the two subscores of the Wechsler intelligence test series. tests reflec general information or knowledge, and the ability to make abstractions
Performance IQ
one of the two subscores of the Wechsler intellegence test series. Reflects ability solve puzzles, copy designs, and perform other similar tasks
Full Scale IQ
one of the three intelligence test scores obtained from the Wechsler tests. This IQ score takes into account both verbal ability and performance and spatial skills
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
for children between 6 and 16 yrs. uses the same general format of the WAIS and provides verbal, performance, and full scale IQs
Weschsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)
children between ages 3 and 7. uses same general format as the WAIS and provides verbal, performance, and full scale IQs.
Neuropsychological tests
intended to measure various consequences of a brain abnormality, such as cognitive, sensorimotor, and perceptual skills
Bender visual-motor gestalt test
a classical neuropsychological test used to help diagnose abnormal brain function. The person being tested is asked to copy a series of 2-D figures. The accuracy of the copies is used as a measure
Personality inventories
person describes himself by answering a series of T/F questions, or rating a series of self-descriptive phrases. Most inventories yield several scores each of which is intended to descrive an aspect of personality
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
self-report personality questionnaire designed to facilitate psychiatric diagnosis
Rorschach inkblot test
projective test in which the individual is shown a series of ambiguous inkblots and asked to described what is seen in them
projective techniques
ambiguous stimulus materials that elicit subjective responses of an associative or fantasy nature
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
projective test consisting of somewhat ambiguous pictures. Subject is asked to tell a story about each picture. From these stories, personality dynamics are inferred
Word-association test
projective technique in which a list of words is presented one by one. Client is asked to respond to each item with the first word that comes to mind
Rating scale
type of test in which a person can indicate on a scale the degree of his or her agreement with each item; one of the most venerable and versatile of the personality assessment techniques
Sentence-completion test
projective test in which the client is presented with a series of incomplete sentences and is asked to complete each one
Behavioral assessment
used to identify response deficits, which are then treated through the use of behvaioral methods
Cognitive assessment
specification and enumeration of the typical thoughts that precede, accompany, and follow maladaptive behavior. Used in research and by cognitive behavior therapists, especially in working with depressed individuals
relational assessment
testing instrument used to assess a person's key social relationships
Quality of relationahips inventory
a way of measuring close relationships; developed to assess various aspects of close relationships with specific peopple (i.e family members, romantic partners, or friends)
Bodily assessment
can be described by brain imaging and EEG recordings; can be used to measure such physiological changes as pupil dilation, blood pressure, and electrical skin responses under specific conditions
Biofeedback
method for inducing behvaioral change in which the client learns to alter autonomic nervous system responses by monitoring them on recording instruments
Stress
feeling or reaction individuals have when faced with a situation that demands action from them, especially action that may be beyond their capabilities
Vulnerability
conditions, either internal or external, that make a person more likely to be affected adversely by stress. Factors include heredity, personality, lack of coping skills, previous negative life events, and some negative environmental factors.
Coping Skills
characteristic ways in which a person deals with difficulties or stress. Commonly used skills include task-directed activity, working on a problem step by step, and appropriate control of emotion
Bereavement
the state of having lost someone through death
Grief
sorrow, usually over a loss
Adjustment disorder
maladaptive reaction to a particular stressful condition that results in impaired functioning and symptoms in excess of what might be a normal response to the stressor; reaction must occur soon after the beginning of the stress, and reaction can be expected to decrease when stressor ceases
Acute stress disorder
a reaction to stress in which the symptoms appear w/in the month following the stressor. If the symptoms continue, past 1 month, the diagnosis is changed to PTSD
Stressor
Source of stress, pressure, or strain. Something that upsets the equilibrium of an organism
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)
a widely used individually administered intelligence test for those over 16 yrs of age. a series of subtests of different types yield a verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ
Verbal IQ
one of the two subscores of the Wechsler intelligence test series. tests reflec general information or knowledge, and the ability to make abstractions
Performance IQ
one of the two subscores of the Wechsler intellegence test series. Reflects ability solve puzzles, copy designs, and perform other similar tasks
Full Scale IQ
one of the three intelligence test scores obtained from the Wechsler tests. This IQ score takes into account both verbal ability and performance and spatial skills
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
for children between 6 and 16 yrs. uses the same general format of the WAIS and provides verbal, performance, and full scale IQs
Weschsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)
children between ages 3 and 7. uses same general format as the WAIS and provides verbal, performance, and full scale IQs.
Neuropsychological tests
intended to measure various consequences of a brain abnormality, such as cognitive, sensorimotor, and perceptual skills
Bender visual-motor gestalt test
a classical neuropsychological test used to help diagnose abnormal brain function. The person being tested is asked to copy a series of 2-D figures. The accuracy of the copies is used as a measure
Personality inventories
person describes himself by answering a series of T/F questions, or rating a series of self-descriptive phrases. Most inventories yield several scores each of which is intended to descrive an aspect of personality
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
self-report personality questionnaire designed to facilitate psychiatric diagnosis
Rorschach inkblot test
projective test in which the individual is shown a series of ambiguous inkblots and asked to described what is seen in them
projective techniques
ambiguous stimulus materials that elicit subjective responses of an associative or fantasy nature
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
projective test consisting of somewhat ambiguous pictures. Subject is asked to tell a story about each picture. From these stories, personality dynamics are inferred
Word-association test
projective technique in which a list of words is presented one by one. Client is asked to respond to each item with the first word that comes to mind
Rating scale
type of test in which a person can indicate on a scale the degree of his or her agreement with each item; one of the most venerable and versatile of the personality assessment techniques
Dissociative disorders
sudden, temporary alterations in the functions of consciousness, identity, or motor behavior, in which some part of one or more of these functions is lost.
Dissociative amnesia
selective but extensive memory loss that occurs w/o accompanying indications of injury or other organic change.
Dissociative fugue
an amnesic state that involves unexpected departure from one's surroundings, the assumption of a new identity, and an inability to recall or remember one's previous identity
Dissociative identity disorder
disorder in which a person assumes alternate personalities (aka multiple personality disorder)
Depersonalization
feelings of unreality or a loss of personal identity; often experienced as being someone other than oneself, or as watching oneself in a movie
Anxiety
generally, an unpleasant emotional state accompanied by physiolofical arousal and the cognitive elements of apprehension, guilt, and a sense of impending disaster; (not fear)
Anxietas
roman word which indicated a lasting state of fearfulness
Angor
roman word which signified a momentary state of intense fear, akin to our concept of panic
Generalized anxiety disorder
marked by chronic anxiety over a long period (at least several months)
Panic disorder
a panic disorder which consists of recurrent, sudden anxiety attacks in which the individual experiences intense terror and dread
Phobic Disorders
anxiety disorder in which the anxiety has an identifiable cause
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
anxiety disorder in which anxiety results from efforts to prevent undesirable outcomes; the individual is plagued with a recurrent need to ward off disaster by thinking about certain ideas and/or performing certain acts
Posttraumatic stress disorder
anxiety disorder in which intrusive thoughts, numbness, and anxiety persist long after the stressful event has ended
Neurosis
early term used by DSM-II to describe disorders marked by anxiety, personal dissatisfaction, and inappropriate (but not psychotic) behavior
Anxiety disorders
characterized by some form of anxiety as the most prominent symptom. Include panic disorders, phobic disorders, OCD, GAD, and reactions to stressors
Panic attack
a rapidly rising surge of intense anxiety that occurs suddenly, either w/ or w/o clear cues, in an unpredictable fashion
Phobia
excessive or inappropriate fear of some particular object or situaiton that is not in fact dangerous
Xenophobia
fear of strangers
Acrophobia
fear of heights
Specific phobias
persistent irrational fears associated w/ a particular type of object (i.e. spiders or dogs) or situation (i.e closed area or high place)
Obsessive behavior
characterized by preoccupation w/ a particular type of though that keeps occuring repetitively
Compulsive behavior
characterized by an individual's need to repeat a series of acts again and again, even though he or she perceives them as senseless and/or interfering w/ desirable activities
Acute PTSD symptoms
PTSD begins w/in 3 months of the trauma
Delayed PTSD symptoms
PTSD symptoms emerge more than 6 months after the event
Isolation
defense mechanism by which inconsistent or contradictory attitudes and feelings are walled off from each other in consciousness
Undoing
defense mechanism aimed at negating or atoning for some disapproved impulse or act
Reaction formation
defense mechanism that enables the individual to express an unacceptable impulse by transforming it into its opposite
Behavior therapy
includes several techniques of behavior modification based on labaratory-derived principles of learning and conditioning; focus on modifying overt behvaiors, w/ minimal reference to internal and covert events
Systematic desensitization
a series of fear-arousing stimuli, carefully graded from mild to strongly fearful, are used. Only when a client is comfortable with one level of fear-producing stimuli is the next, slightly stronger stimulus introduced
Implosive therapy
behavior therapy technique based on the principle of extinction. Client is repeatedly presented w/ strong anxiety-provoking stimuli until they no longer react in an anxious manner