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141 Cards in this Set

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Abnormal Psychology
area within psychology that deals with maladaptive behavior
Stigma
In medicine, a mark indicating a history of disease or abnormality. In general, some characteristic that leads to disgrace, reproach, or discrimination by others.
Adaptation
dynamic process by which an individual responds to his or her environment and the changes that occur within it; ability to modify one's behavior to meet changing requirements; influenced by ones' personal characteristics and the type of situation
Maladaptive Behavior
behavior that deals inadequately with a situation, especially one that is stressful
Exorcism
rituals designed to expel evil spirits that are believed to be causing illness or deviant behavior
Shaman
in traditional cultures, inspired priest of medium who can summon up and communicate with good and evil spirits
Trephination
process of making a circular hole in the skull. In early times this was done to allow evil spirits to escape.
Organismic point of view
Pertaining to the organism as a whole rather than to particular parts. Behavior is considerred an interrelated and interactive function of the integrated organism
Humors
The four essential bodily fluids-blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm-that were believed to cause various disorders from ancient times through the medieval period.
Natural fool
A term coined during the middle ages that pertained to a mentally retarded person whose intellectual capacities had never progressed beyond those of a child
Non Compos Mentis
A term coined during the middle ages that pertained to a person who did not show mental disability at birth. However, their deviant behavior was not continuous, and they might show long periods of recovery. (not of sound mind)
Saint Augustine's Confessions
revealed his innermost thoughts, temptations, and fears. demonstrated that introspection and exploration of the individual's emotional life could be valuable sources of psychological knowledge
The Anatomy of Melancholy by Robert Burton
focuses on the emotional core of depression and observed that depressed people tend to be very angry, not only with themselves, but with others as well.
Physiognomy
the art of judging human character or personality from facial features
Phrenology
obsolete theory that different psychological behaviors were related to different parts of the brain and that these could be assessed by touching the surface of the skull
Baquet
a tub filled with magnetized water used for treatment of emotional crises by Mesmer during the Age of Reason and Enlightenment
Medical Inquiries and Observations Upon the Diseases of the Mind
by Benjamin Rush; the first American textbook on psychiatry. during the Reform Movement
A Mind That Found Itself
by Clifford Beers who recorded his experiences as a mental patient. Lead to improvement of care and treatment of the mentally ill.
Stress
feeling or reaction individuals have when faced with a situation that demands action from them, especially action that may be beyond their capabilities; usually not a pleasant state
Vulnerability
how likely we are to respond to certain situations;
Resilience
the ability "bounce back" following significant stress
Coping
how people deal with difficulties and attempt to overcome them.
Coping Skills
the techniques available to an individual in making attempts to overcome difficulty
Incidence
the number of new cases of a specific condition that arise during a particular period of time.
Prevalence
the frequency of occurence of a given condition among a certain population at a particular point in time.
Risk Factor
a specific characteristic or condition whose presence is associated with an increased likelihood that a specific disorder is present or will develop at a later time
Deinstitutionalize
Movement whose purpose is to remove from caregiving institutions all those patients who do not present a clear danger to others or to themselves, and to provide treatment and sheltered living conditions for them in the community
Clinical Psychologist
psychologist, usually a Ph.D. or Psy.D., who has special training and skills in assessing and treatin maladaptive behavior
Counseling Psychologist
someone trained especially to work with clients who are experiencing current life stresses rather than more serious or long-lasting disorders; usually holds a Ph.D. or Ed.D.
Psychiatric Social Worker
a person with a graduate degree in social work and specialized training in treating and giving practical assistance to patients with behavioral problems, and their families
Psychiatric Nurse
a registered nurse who has taken specialized training in the care of those with mental illness
Self-observations
records kept by the client or patient that detail the frequency of certain specified types of behavior, and usually include any specific environmental factors or personal thoughts that occurred just before, during, or after the behavior
Case Studies
detailed observations of a client's behavior, symptoms, and reported thoughts over a period of time, with inferences about cause and effect supplied by the clinician
Correlation
an association or linkage or two or more events
Correlational Studies
Type of research in which the relationship of two or more characteristics is measured. No statement about cause and effect can be made from correlational research
Assessment Studies
studies aimed at gathering information to describe a particular group in which variables are not manipulated. Such data can be used for prediction and are usually expressed in the form of correlations between variables
Longitudinal Study
research strategy based on observing people over periods of time. Involves obtaining measurements on the same people either continuously or at specific or regular time intervals
Hypothesis-Testing Experiment
evaluation of the correctness of an idea by experimental test
Independent Variables
variables that are manipulated by researchers in experiments
Dependent Variables
any observed changes in behavior due to manipulation of independent variables
Behavior-Change Experiment
the test of a therapeutic manipulation, used to determine whether the individual's maladaptive behvaior is lessened
Clinical Trial
The use of a research design that includes one or more experimental groups and a control group to test the usefulness of a particular approach in the treatment of patients
Placebo
inactive or inert substance that is presented as effective remedy for some problem in order to determine what role suggestibility plays in symptom change.
Measures of Central Tendency
provide descriptive numerical summaries of a groups behavior
Measures of Variability
measures of spread; SD, range
Double-Blind Method
experimental design used in drug research. Neither the subjects nor the experimenters know whether the medications given to different comparison groups are active or inert (placebos)
Internal Validity
a situation in which the results of an experiment can be correctly attributed to the experimental manipulation, and not to external factors, because the study was well controlled
External Validity
an experimental situation that is percieved to relate closely to a real world situation
Null Hypothesis
theory that groups do not differ; if the null hypothesis can be rejected, it is assumed to be unlikely that any observed differences are due to chance
Correlation Coefficient
numerical expression of the degree of correspondence between two variables; varies from -1 to 1
Confounding
the effect of one or more uncontrolled variables that results in a mistaken interpretation of the relations between dependent and independent variables
Reactivity
refers to changes in behavior that occur when subjects know they are being observed or studied; can lead to drawing false conclusions from experimental results
Demand Characteristics
aspects of research situation that give subjects clues about how they are expected to behave
Expectancy Effects
responses or behaviors that are function of what the subject or patient believes will be the result of an intervention, rather than of the actual consequences of whatever intervention took place
Sampling
process by which cases or subjects are drawn from a larger population; should be representative of entire population
Thoughts
ideas, concepts, and internal dialogue with one's self
Feelings
subjective emotional states
Perceptions
the products of the individual's processing, organizing, and interpreting sensory signals
Skills
basic abilities such as intelligence, memory, attention, and language
Biological Perspective
emphasizes the role of bodily processes
Psychodynamic Perspective
emphasizes the role of anxiety and inner conflict
Behavioral Perspective
examines how the environment influences behavior
Cognitive Perspective
looks to defective thinking and problem solving as causes of abnormal behavior
Humanistic-Existential Perspective
emphasizes our uniquenessas individuals and our freedom to make our own decisions
Community-Cultural Perspective
concerned with the roles of social relationships and the impact of socioeconomic conditions on maladaptive behavior; maladaptive behavior results from inability to cope effectively with stress
Neural Plasticity
the ability of the nervous system to change in response to stimulation, and the degree to which it can do so
Psychic Determinism
principle of causality, one of the basic assumptions of psychoanalysis, which states that all events, overt and covert, are determined by prior and often multiple mental events
Conscious
related to aspects of one's mental life of which one is aware at any particular time
Preconscious
thoughts that are not held in a person's mind at a particular time but which can easily be brought into awareness
Unconscious
out of awareness; mental contents that can be brought to awareness only with great difficulty (or not at all)
Libido
Freud's term for the emotional or psychic energy he believed to be originated by the innate drive for sexual pleasure
Id
in psychoanalysis, that division of the psyche that is a repository of all instinctual impulses and repressed mental contents. Represents the true unconscious, or the "deepest" part of the psyche
Ego
in pschoanalytic theory, the part of the psyche that makes up the self or the "I." The part of the psyche that is conscious and most closely in touch with reality, and that functions as the "effective officer" of the personality
Superego
represents the person's moral code and reflects social values as imposed by parents, schools, etc; uses guilt to keep the id in line
Primary Process Thinking
thinking characterized by inability by inability to discriminate between the real and the unreal, between the "me" and the "non-me" as well as by inability to inhibit impulses
Pleasure Principle
the immediate satisfaction of needs and desires without regard for the requirements of reality
Secondary Process Thinking
a reality-oriented is characteristic of older children and adults and is dependent on the development of the ego
Anxiety
generally, an unpleasant emotional state accompanied by physiological arousal and the cognitive elements of apprehension, guilt and a sense of impending disaster. distinguished from fear
Defense Mechanisms
psychoanalytic term for various psychic operations used by the ego to avoid awareness of unpleasant and anxiety-provoking stimuli/
Repression
psychoanalytic defense mechanism tht involves a "stopping-thinking" or "not-being-able-to-remember" response; actively fores traumatic events, intolerable and dangerous impulses and other undesirable mental affects out of consciousness into the less accessible realm of the unconscious
Free association
basic technique of the psychoanalytic method by which a patient expresses his or her thoughts as freely and uninhibited a manner as possible; provide a natural flow of though processes unencumbered by interruptions or explanations
Collective Unconscious
Jung's idea that each person's unconscious life concerns both a personal unconscious made up of past personal experiences that have been forgotten or repressed, and the collective unconscious, an inherited structure that is common to all humankind and that symbolizes universal situations (such as having parents, finding a mate, confronting death, and so on).
Ego Psychology
a later development in psychoanalytic theory that focuses increased attention on rational processes or ego functions. Erik Erikson's theoretical work is an example of ego psychology
Object Relations
the psychoanalytic approach that focuses attention on the emotional bonds between persons rather than on a person's view of him or herself
Splitting
term used to describe the inability of a person with borderline personality disorder to integrate positive and negative experiences with another individual into a coherent relationship; term used by object relations theorists
Self Psychology
a theory used by Kohut that considers the individual's self-concept as the central organizing factor in psychological development
Determinism
The philosophical idea that all acts are the inevitable result of what has happened before, and that human choice or free will plays no role in what happens
Reinforcement
any event that, if contingent upon response by an organism, changes the probability that the response will be made again; may be positive or negative, and may be presented according to a prescribed schedule
Classical Conditioning
where the response that an organism automatically makes to a certain stimulus is transferred to a new stimulus through an association between the two stimuli
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, the neutral stimulus that does not elicit a response prior to training
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
in classical conditioning, the response that occurs automatically, before training, when the unconditioned stimulus is presented
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
in classical conditioning, the stiumulus that automatically elicits the desired response before training has taken place
Conditioned Response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the response that occurs after training has taken place and after the conditioned stimulus has been presented
Avoidance Response (escape response)
attempt to leave a situation in which an aversive stimulus is expected to occur
Extinction
weakening or a response following removal of reinforcement
Systematic Desentization
a therapeutic procedure whose goal is to extinguish a conditioned response
Operant Conditioning
form of conditioning in which a desired response occurs and is subsequently reinforced to increase its probability of more frequent occurrence;aka instrumental conditioning
Reinforcer
a consequence of behavior that makes it more likely the behavior will occur again
Postive Reinforcer
achieves reinforcement by provoking a reward or pleasure
Negative Reinforcer
stimulus that ceases when the desired behavior is performed
Shaping
basic process of operant conditioning that involves the reinforcement of successively closer approximations to a desired behavior
Schedule of Reinforcement
the pattern in which reinforcements are administered
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
every response of a particular type is reinforced
Partial or Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
only some of the responses are reinforced
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses
Variable-Ratio Schedule
reinforcement varies around an average number of responses (e.g. it might be required that on avg 10 responses must be made before a reinforcement is given).
Fixed-Interval Schedule
reinforcement follws the first response that occurs after a certain time interval
Vairable-Interval Ratio
reinforcement occurs after a variable interval of time.
Social-Cognitive theory
says thatinternalized beliefs, perceptions, and goals influence the impact that experiences associated with conditioning and reinforcement have on behavior and thoughts
Modeling
behavior learned or modified as a result of observing the behavior of others. Learner does not have to make the observed response, or be reinforced for making it; aka observational learning
Systematic Desentization
a therapeutic procedure whose goal is to extinguish a conditioned response
Operant Conditioning
form of conditioning in which a desired response occurs and is subsequently reinforced to increase its probability of more frequent occurrence;aka instrumental conditioning
Reinforcer
a consequence of behavior that makes it more likely the behavior will occur again
Postive Reinforcer
achieves reinforcement by provoking a reward or pleasure
Negative Reinforcer
stimulus that ceases when the desired behavior is performed
Shaping
basic process of operant conditioning that involves the reinforcement of successively closer approximations to a desired behavior
Schedule of Reinforcement
the pattern in which reinforcements are administered
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
every response of a particular type is reinforced
Partial or Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule
only some of the responses are reinforced
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses
Variable-Ratio Schedule
reinforcement varies around an average number of responses (e.g. it might be required that on avg 10 responses must be made before a reinforcement is given).
Fixed-Interval Schedule
reinforcement follws the first response that occurs after a certain time interval
Vairable-Interval Ratio
reinforcement occurs after a variable interval of time.
Social-Cognitive theory
says thatinternalized beliefs, perceptions, and goals influence the impact that experiences associated with conditioning and reinforcement have on behavior and thoughts
Modeling
behavior learned or modified as a result of observing the behavior of others. Learner does not have to make the observed response, or be reinforced for making it; aka observational learning
Role Playing
in psychotherapy, practing behavior shown by a model
Implicit Learning
takes place when an individual arranges memories of experiences into new patterns of thought
Schemata
the expectations people have as to the way others behvae and the appropriate behaviors for various types of situations; important in addition to what actually occurred in determining the way that a person wil respond to particular types of situations
Self-efficacy
concept originated by Bandura that beliefs about personal efficacy or ability to successfully carry out a task are important determinants in whether it will be attempted and completed successfully
Cognitive Therapy
a form of psychotherapy that is focused on changing conditions that lead to maladaptive behavior, by restructuring thinking so that maladaptive thoughts are replaced with thoughts that lead to more effective coping
Social Learning Theories
refers to several similar theoretical viewpoints, which hold that social behvaior and inner thoughs and feelings are learned through social interactions
Self-actualization
aka self-fulfilment; process by which the development of one's potentials and abilities is achieved
Man's Search for Meaning
by Viktor Frankl; decribed his experiences as a concentration camp prisoner; argued that behavior is driven by the meanings, values, and purposes that characterize a person's life
Logotherapy
term Frankl used to descrive his existential, humanistic approach to treatment
Community Psychology
concerned with modifying both individuals' behavior and the structure of the social system to produce optimal benefits for both society and the individual
Social Causation Theory
theory that maladaptive behavior is a result of poor economic circumstances, poor housing, and inadequate social services
Social Selection Theory
idea that low SES contains many people who drifted there from higher classes because of their poor functioning. Higher incidence of maladaptive behavior in the lower class is explained in this way
Social Roles
the function a particular person plays in society, which is determined by the particular role he or she fills. Most people have oberlapping social roles
Labeling
cognitive device by which a person classifies his or her own emotional responses as a way of controlling behavior, especially in stress-producing situations
Interactional Approach
what we think about and how we behave usually depend on interactions among several factors; these factors combine in giving direction to our lives
Mediators
a link (ex. between a stimulus and the resulting behavior); does not make an independent contribution to an outcome, rather its influence is due to another variable related both to it and to the outcome