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36 Cards in this Set

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166. Which disorder is more prevalent, autism or asperger's?
Asperger's

1 in 250 individuals display this pattern, w/ 80% of them boys
167. What are the paradigms that explain the causes of pervasive developmental disorders?
Sociocultural explanations (overemphasized)

Cognitive limitations

Brain abnormalities
168. What are the sociocultural causes that are thought to be responsible for developmental disorders?
Initially though family dysfunction and social stress were primary causes

Kanner argued particular personality characteristics of parents created an unfavorable climate for development: "refrigerator parents"
169. Did research support any of the sociocultural explanations?
NO

These claims had enormous influence on the public and the self-image of parents but no research to support
170. What are the psychological causes of developmental disorders?
1. Have a central perceptual or cognitive disturbance

2. Fail to develop a theory of mind ("mindblindness")

*It's theorized that early biological problems prevents proper cognitive development
171. What is theory of mind?
An awareness that other people base their behaviors on their own beliefs, intentions, and other mental states, not on information they have no way of knowing
172. What are the biological causes of pervasive developmental disorders (specifically regarding family genetics)?
Family studies suggest a genetic factor

-Prevalence rates are higher among siblings and highest among identical twins
-Chromosomal abnormalities have been discovered in 10% to 12% of people w/ disorder
173. What are some biological prenatal difficulties or birth complications that may cause pervasive developmental disorder?
A postnatal event (MMR vaccine) might produce autism in some children
174. So what then are the biological causes for developmental disorders?
Multiple biological causes

All relevant biological factors lead to a common problem in the brain - a "final common pathway"
175. What are the general treatments for pervasive developmental disorders?
Behavioral Therapy
Communication Training
Parent Training
Community Integration
Psychotropic Drugs
Some Vitamins
176. What is involved in the behavioral therapy?
Teach new, appropriate behaviors, including speech, social skills, classroom skills, and self-help skills, while reducing negative ones

Use modeling and operant conditioning and ideally is used w/ young autistic kids
177. What is the DSM criteria for mental retardation?
Display general intellectual functioning that is well below average in combination w/ poor adaptive behavior

-IQ < 70
-difficulty in communication, home living, self-direction, work, or safety
-symptoms appear before age 18
178. How many people are diagnosed as mentally retarded (or developmental disability)?

What is the sex ratio?
3 of every 100 persons meets criteria

Three-fifths are male and vast majority are considered mildly retarded
179. How is mental retardation assessed and diagnosed? What two tests are used?
1. IQ (test score lower than 70)

2. Vineland and AAMR adaptive behavior scales
180. What is the most consistent sign of mental retardation?

What are some other limitations
Person learns very slowly

Difficulty in other areas such as attention, short-term memory, planning, and learning
181. What are the four levels of mental retardation and the IQ scores that correlate?
1. Mild (IQ 50-70)
2. Moderate (IQ 35-49)
3. Severe (IQ 20-34)
4. Profound (IQ below 20)
182. What are those mildly retarded called?

What percent of all people with mental retardation are mildly retarded?
Call "educatably retarded" b/c they can benefit from schooling and intellectual performance seems to improve with age

80% to 85%
183. What three sociocultural and psychological causes have been linked to mild mental retardation?
1. Poor and unstimulating environment
2. Inadequate parent-child interactions
3. Insufficient early learning experiences
184. What biological factors have been linked to mild retardation?
Mothers' moderate drinking, drug use, or malnutrition during pregnancy have been linked to cases of mild retardation
185. What percent of mentally retarded are moderately retarded?

What can the moderately retarded do?
10%

They can care for themselves and benefit from vocational training
186. What percent of mentally retarded are severely retarded?

What do they need?
3%-4%

They usually require careful supervision and can perform only basic work tasks
187. What percent of mentally retarded are profoundly retarded?

What do they need?
1%-2%

With training they may learn or improve basic skills but they need a very structured environment
188. What are severe and profound mental retardation associated with?
They often appear as part of larger syndromes that include severe physical handicaps
189. What is the primary cause of moderate, severe, and profound mental retardation?
Biological

-genetic factors
-unfavorable conditions that occur before, during, and after birth
190. What are the chromosomal causes of moderate, severe, and profound mental retardation?
1. Down Syndrome
-1 of every 1000 live births result in Down syndrome
-rate increases greatly when mother's age is over 35
-usually abnormality is on chromosome 21 trisomy
2. Fragile X syndrome
191. What are the metabolic causes of moderate, severe, and profound mental retardation?
Metabolic diseases that cause mental retardation are typically caused by the pairing of two defective recessive genes

Examples
-Phenylketonuria (PKU)
-Tay-Sachs disease
192. What are some prenatal and birth-related causes?

Four causes....
1. Low iodine may lead to cretinism
2. Alcohol leads to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
3. Certain maternal infections (rubella, syphilis) may cause childhood problems
4. Birth complications like prolonged period w/o air (anoxia)
193. What are some childhood problems that can cause mental retardation?
Particularly up to age 6 certain injuries and accidents can affect intelligence

Poisonings, serious head injury, excessive exposure to x-rays, excessive use of certain drugs/chemicals/ and/or mineral, certain infections (meningitis and encephalitis)
194. What does the quality of life achieved by people with mental retardation depend on largely?
Sociocultural factors

Intervention programs try to provide comfortable and stimulating residences, social and economic opportunities, and a proper education
195. What has been the progression of residence for people with mental retardation?
First lived in public institutions then had deinstitutionalization movement in 60's and 70's

Small institutions and community residences that follow principle of normalization

Today vast majority live at home
196. What educational programs are used for the mentally retarded?
Operant condition principles and many schools also employ token economy programs
197. What percent of mentally retarded experience emotional and behavioral problems?
25% have a diagnosable psychological disorder

Some suffer from low self-esteem, interpersonal problems, and adjustment difficulties

*treat w/ therapy, groups sessions, or meds
198. How many mentally retarded people marry?
Between one-quarter and one-half
199. What are internalizing disorders
Certain problems appear to be related to problems "within the self", such as fears, physical complaints, worrying, shyness. Historically, they were termed the "neuroses

Children with these types of disorders seem to deal with problems internally, rather than acting them out in the environment
201. Which type of disorder, internalizing or externalizing, causes more distress for the child?
Internalizing disorders usually cause more distress to a child than do the externalizing disorders, although this is not always the case
200. What are externalizing disorders?
Characterized by behaviors directed outward, typically toward other people.Examples include disobedience, aggression, delinquency, temper tantrums, and over activity.

These type of behaviors typically involve conflict with other people.This class
of behaviors has also been called "conduct disorder",
"under controlled", and simply "aggressive".