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449 Cards in this Set

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the study of people who suffer mental, emotional, and often physical pain as a result of some form of psychological or mental disorder
circumstances surrounding a behaviour
expectations for the behaviour of an individual based on his or her gender
gender roles
perspective that holds that there are no universal standards or rules for labeling a behaviour as abnormal
cultural relativism (perspective)
a second standard that has been used for designating behaviours as abnormal
perspective that suggests that behaviours should be considered abnormal only if the individual suffers discomfort and wishes to be rid of the behaviours
discomfort (perspective)
perspective that defines abnormality as behaviours that result from mental disease or illness
mental illness (perspective)
perspective that behaviours and feelings that cause people to suffer distress and that prevent them from functioning in daily life are abnormal and should be the focus of research and intervention
maladaptive (perspective)
the behaviours or feelings prevent the person from functioning in daily life
the behaviours or feelings cause the person (or others) significant distress
the behaviours or feelings are highly unusual
theories that saw abnormal behaviour as similar to physical diseases, cause by breakdowns of systems in the body
biological theories
theories that saw abnormal behaviour as a result of divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and personal sin
supernatural theories
theories that saw abnormal behaviour as a result of traumas, such as bereavement or chronic stress
psychological theories
treatment for abnormality in the Stone Ages; to drill holes in the skulls of people displaying abnormal behaviour to allow the spirits to depart
a phenomenon in which large numbers of people begin to engage in unusual behaviours that appear to have a psychological origin
psychic epidemics
treatment designed to restore patients' self-restraint by treating them with respect and dignity and encouraging them to exercise self-control
moral treatment
a disease that leads to paralysis, insanity, and eventually death; discovery of its cause (syphilis) in the mid-1800s was one of the most important discoveries underpinning modern biological theories of abnormality
general paresis
methods used by Austrian physician Mesmer in the 18th century; "cures" caused in his psychiatric patients were attributed to the trancelike states he induced in his patients (hypnosis)
the study of the unconscious
the study of the impact of reinforcements and punishments on behaviour
thought processes that influence behaviour and emotion
peoples' beliefs about their ability to execute the behaviours necessary to control important events
self-efficacy beliefs
movement which began in 1960; advocates argued that mental patients can recover more fully or live more satisfying lives if they are integrated into the community, with the support of community-based treatment facilities
patients' rights movement
process of integrating patients into the community, with the support of community-based treatment facilities
movement which attempted to provide coordinated mental-health services to people in community-based centers
community mental-health movement
generally a loose collection of methods for organizing health care that ranges from simple monitoring all the way to total control over what care can be provided and paid for
managed care
approach that examines the biological, psychological, and social theories of a given disorder and focuses on how these factors interact and influence each other to produce and maintain mental-health problems
integrationist approach
movement started by Clifford Beers in the early 1900s for the reform of mental-health treatment
mental hygiene movement
a set of ideas that provides a framework for asking questions about a phenomenon, as well as gathering and interpreting information about that phenomenon
approach that suggests that symptoms are caused by a biological factor; focuses on structural damage to the brain, biochemical imbalances, and genetic abnormalities
biological approach
approach that suggests that symptoms are rooted in psychological factors; focuses on unconscious conflicts, poor skills, and maladaptive cognitions
psychological approach
approach that a patient's symptoms are caused by their interpersonal relationships and the social environment in which they live; focuses on maladaptive upbringing and chronic stress
social approach
models integrating biological, psychological, and social approaches to develop comprehensive models of the many factors that lead some people to develop a given mental disorder
vunerability-stress models
an area of the brain involved in many of our most advanced thinking processes
cerebral cortex
area of the brain which regulates basic biological needs (eating, drinking, sexual behaviour) and influences basic emotions
a collection of structures that are closely interconnected with the hypothalamus and appear to exert additional control over some of the instinctive behaviours regulated by the hypothalamus
limbic system
biochemicals that act as messengers, carrying impulses from one neuron (or nerve cell) to another in the brain and in other parts of the nervous system
the slight gap between the synaptic terminals and the adjacent neurons
molecules on the membranes of adjacent neurons
process which occurs when the initial neuron releasing the neurotransmitter into the synapse reabsorbs the neurotransmitter, decreasing the amount left in the synapse
process which occurs when the receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse that breaks down the neurotransmitter into other biochemicals
system of glands which produces many different chemicals called hormones which are released directly into the blood
endocrine system
carries messages throughout the body, potentially affecting a person's moods, levels of energy, and reaction to stress
one of the major endocrine glands; has been called the "master gland" because it produces the largest number of different hormones and controls the secretion of other endocrine glands; partly an outgrowth of the brain and lies just below the hypothalamus
the study of the genetics of personality and anormality
behaviour genetics
process which takes multiple genetic abnormalities coming together in one individual to create a disorder
study in which scientists first identify people who clearly have the disorder in question (probands), and also identify a control group of people who clearly do not have the disorder, then trace the family pedigrees (family trees) of the individuals in these two groups and determine how many of their relatives have the disorder
family history study
twins that come from a single fertilized egg which splits into two identical parts
monozygotic twins
twins that come from two separate eggs fertilized by separate sperm
dizygotic twins
studies used by researchers to investigate the contribution of genetics to many disorders through observing differences between MZ and DZ twins
twin studies
probability that both twins have the disorder if one twin has the disorder
concordance rate
a tendency to develop a disorder
study in which researchers identify people who have the disorder of interest who were adopted shortly after birth, then determine the rates of the disorder in the biological relatives of these adoptees and the adoptive relatives of the adoptees
adoption study
theories that suggest that all behaviour, thoughts, and emotions, whether normal or abnormal, are influenced to a large extent by unconscious processes
psychodynamic theories
method developed by Freud which is (1) a theory of personality and psychopathology, (2) a method of investigating the mind, and (3) a form of treatment for psychopathology
the release of emotions connected to distressing memories
the motivated forgetting of a difficult experience
sexual drive
the system from which the libido emerges, and its drives and impulses seek immediate release
the drive to maximize pleasure and minimize pain, as quickly as possible; operates the id
pleasure principle
when direct action cannot be taken, humans may use fantasies or memories to conjure up the desired object or action
primary procss thinking, or wish fulfillment
the force that seeks to gratify wishes and needs in ways that remain within the rules of society for their appropriate expression
the drive to satisfy our needs within the realities of society's rules
reality principle
the ego's primary mode of operation; rational deliberation about how to satisfy primitive urges within the constraints of society
secondary process thinking
the storehouse of rules and regulations for the conduct of behaviour that are learned from one's parents and from society; made up of two components, the conscience (constantly evaluates whether we are conforming our behaviour to our internalized moral standards) and the ego ideal (an image of the person we wish to become)
internalizing moral standards
completely out of our awareness
way station, or buffer, between unconscious and conscious
completely part of our awareness
strategies that the ego uses to disguise or transform unconscious wishes
defense mechanisms
when a person's behaviour becomes ruled by defense mechanisms or when the mechanisms themselves are maladaptive, the defense mechanisms can result in abnormal, pathologicalc behaviour
neurotic paradox
Freud's proposition that as children develop, they pass through a series of univeral stages; in each stage, sexual drives are focused on the stimulation of certain body areas, and particular psychological issues can arouse anxiety
psychosexual stages
earliest stage of life; 0-18 months; libidinal impulses are best satisfied through stimulation of the mouth area, usually through feeding or sucking; central issues of this stage are of one's dependence and the reliability of others
oral stage
stage from 1.5-3 years; the focus of gratification is the anus
anal stage
stage from 3-6 years; the focus of pleasure is the genitals
phallic stage
boys become sexually attracted to their mothers and hate their fathers as rivals
Oedipus complex
boys with Oedipus complex fear that their fathers will retaliate against them by castrating them, motivating them to put aside their desire for their mothers and aspire to become like their fathers
castration anxiety
girls develop an attraction for their fathers, in hopes that their fathers will provide the penis they lack
Electra complex
the wish to have the male sex organ
penis envy
stage from 6-12 years; libidinal drives are quelled somewhat and attention turns to developing skills and interests and becoming fully socialized into the world
latency stage
stage from 12 years on; sexual interests turn to heterosexual interests; begin to pursue romantic alliances
genital stage
theory that suggests that our early relationships create images, or representations, of ourselves and others; we carry these images throughout adulthood and they affect all our subsequent relationships
object relations theory
the image of the self and other is split into the good image and the bad image, with no appreciation for the mixed qualities of good and bad that are true of all people
pairing a previously neutral stimulus with a stimulus that naturally leads to a certain response, and eventually the neutral stimulus is able to elicit that response
classical conditioning
the stimulus that naturally produces the desired response
unconditioned stimulus
the response created by the unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
the previously neutral stimulus
conditioned stimulus
the response the conditioned stimulus elicited
conditioned response
the shaping of behaviours by providing rewards for desired behaviours and punishments for undesired behaviours
operant conditioning
behaviours are paired with the reward or punishment every time the behavious is emitted
continuous reinforcement schedule
the reward or punishment occurs only sometimes in response to the behaviour
partial reinforcement schedule
the elimination of a learned behaviour
theory that suggests that people can learn behaviours by watching other people
social learning theory
people learn new behaviours from imitating the behaviours modeled by important people in their lives
a person observes the rewards and punishments that another person received for his or her behaviour and then behaves in accord with those rewards and punishments
observational learning
thoughts and beliefs
theories that argue that cognitions shape our behaviours and the emotions we experience
cognitive theories
our answer to "why" an event happened
causal attribution
theory that focuses on people's expectations regarding their abilities to control important events
control theory
broad beliefs about how things work
global assumptions
theories of abnormality that focus on what we might call "the person" behind the cognitions, the behaviours, and the unconscious conflicts; based on the assumption that humans have an innate capacity for goodness and for living a full life; pressure from society to conform to certain norms, rather than to seek one's most developed self, interferes with the fulfillment of this capacity
humanistic and existential theories
the fulfillment of one's potential for love, creativity, and meaning
form of therapy designed to help people realize their genuine selves, accept themselves entirely, and begin growing toward self-actualization
client-centered therapy
theories that center their explanations of the development of normal and abnormal behaviour on the fact that humans are social beings
interpersonal theories
images of the self and others in relation to the self
theories that see the family as a complex system, which works to maintain the status quo or homeostasis
family systems theories
theories that suggest that we need to look beyond the family to the larger society to find the causes of psychopathology in individuals
social structural theories
process in which steps are designed to obtain and evaluate information relevant to a problem in a systematic way
scientific method
expectation that there is no relationship between the phenomena being studied
null hypothesis
a factor or characteristic that can vary within an individual or between individuals
the factor being predicted in a study
dependent variable
the factor that is believed to affect the dependent variable
independent variable
the way a researcher measures or manipulates the variables in a study
a testable statement of what we predict will happen in the study
detailed histories of individuals who have suffered a form of psychological disopder
case studies
the ability to apply what has been learned to other individuals or groups
one case study repeats the conclusions of another
studies which examine the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable without manipulating either variable
correlational studies
a variable measured along a continuum
continuous variable
study in which researchers are interested in the relationship between people's membership in a particular group and their scores on some other variable
group comparison study
studies in which researchers observe people at only one point in time
studies in which researchers observe people on two or more occasions over time
a statistic used to represent the relationship between variables; often denoted with the symbol r
correlation coefficient
an index of how likely a particular result occurred simply by chance
statistical significance
the possibility that variables not measured in a study are the real cause of the relationship between the variables measured in the study
third variable problem
a group of people taken from the population that we want to study
the extent to which a study's results can be generalized to the phenomena in real life
external validity
the study of the frequency and distribution of a disorder, or a group of disorders, in a population
the proportion of the population that has the disorder at a given point or period in time
the number of new cases of a disorder that delelop during a specific period of time
conditions or factors that are associated with a higher risk of having the disorder
risk factors
studies in which researchers attempt to control the independent variable and any potentially problematic third variables, rather than simply observing them as they naturally occur
experimental studies
study in which participants are exposed to a stressor in a laboratory and then researchers determine whether it causes an increase in depressed mood
human laboratory study or analogue study
changes in the dependent variable can be confidently attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable, not to other factors
internal validity
participants have all the same experiences as the group of main interest in the study, except that they do not receive the key manipulation
control group
group of main interest in the study, exposed to the key manipulation
experimental group
each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental or the control group
random assignment
situations that cause participants to guess the hypothesis of the study and change their behaviour as a result
demand characteristics
studies that attempt to reduce psychopathology by reducing the factors believed to cause it
therapy outcome study
participants do not receive the therapy when the experimental group does, but they go onto a wait list to receive the intervention at a later date when the study is complete
wait list control group
participants have the same interactions with experimenters as do the participants in the experimental group, but they take pills that are placebos (inactive substances) rather than the real drug
placebo control group
both the participants and the experimenters are unaware of what condition the participants are in
double-blind experiment
how well a therapy works in highly controlled settings with a narrowly defined group of people
how well a therapy works in real-world settings with all the complications
study in which one individual or a small group of people is studied intensively
single-case experimental design
intervention is introduced, withdrawn, and then reinstated, and the behaviour of the participant is examined on and off the treatment
ABAB or reveral design
studies in which animals are subjected to situations in the laboratory that would not be ethical to impose on humans
animal studies
a statistical technique for summarizing the results across several studies
the process of gathering information about people's symptoms and the possible causes of those symptoms
a label attached to a set of symptoms that tend to occur with one another
a determination of which of several possible disorders an individual may be suffering
differential diagnosis
the extent to which a person identifies with his or her group of origin and its culture
interview with only a few questions that are open-ended
unstructured interview
interview in which the clinician asks the respondent a series of questions about symptoms he or she is experiencing or has experienced in the past; format is highly structured and standardized; clinician uses concrete criteria to score the person's answers to each question
structured interview
the individual being assessed does not want to be assessed or treated
the accuracy of a test in assessing what it is supposed to measure
on face value, the items seem to be measuring what the test is intended to measure
face validity
the extent to which a test assesses all the important aspects of a phenomenon that it purports to measure
content validity
the extent to which a test yields the same results as other measures of the same behaviour, thoughts, or feelings
concurrent validity
the extent to which a test is good at predicting how a person will think, act, or feel in the future
predictive validity
the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure, not something else altogether
construct validity
an indicator of the consistency of a test in measuring what it is supposed to measure
an index of how consistent the results of a test are over time
test-retest reliability
when people's answers to different forms of a test are similar
alternate form reliability
when there is similarity in people's answers among different parts of the same test
internal reliability
different raters or judges who administer and score the interview or test come to similar conclusions when they are evaluating the same people
interrater reliability
paper-and-pencil tests used to detect specific cognitive and fine-motor deficits when neurological impairment is suspected
neuropsychological tests
enhancement of x-ray procedures; constructs a 3-D image of the structure of the brain
computerized tomography (CT)
patient is injected with a harmless radioactive isotopes to provide a picture of activity in the brain
positron-emission tomography (PET)
creates a magnetic field around the brain to reconstruct a 3-D image; used to study structural and functional brain abnormalities
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
tests used to get a sense of a client's intellectual strengths and weaknesses, particularly when mental retardation or brain damage is suspected
intelligence tests
questionnaire for patients used when clinicians or researchers want a quick way to assess what symptoms a person is experiencing
symptom questionnaire
meant to assess people's typical ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving; usually questionnaires
personality inventories
test based on the assumption that, when people are presented with an ambiguous stimulus, they will interpret the stimulus in line with their current concerns and feelings, relationships with others, and conflicts or desires
projective test
clinicians observe clients in interpersonal settings to assess deficits in their skills or ways of handling situations
behavioural observation
clinician asks client to keep track of the number of times per day he or she engages in a specific behaviour and the conditions under which this behaviour happens
a set of symptoms that tend to occur together
the set of syndromes and the rules for determining whether an individual's symptoms are part of one of these syndromes
classification system
official manual for diagnosing psychological disorders in the US
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
therapy that involves a therapist talking with the person suffering from the disorder about his or her symptoms and what is contributing to these symptoms
drug now used to treat the symptoms of psychosis; its discovery is generally thought of as the beginning of modern drug treatment
a group of chemical compounds that have a number of biological effects on humans, including acting as antihistamines, decreasing muscle tone, reducing nausea, and in some cases they cause either sedation or euphoria
group of chemical compounds that depress the activity of the nervous system
class of drugs that can reduce psychotic symptoms
drugs that relieve the symptoms of psychosis (loss of reality testing, hallucinations, delusions); include thorazine, haldol, clozaril
antipsychotic drugs
drugs to treat the symptoms of depression (sadness, loss of appetite, sleep disturbances); include parnate, elavil,prozac
antidepressant drugs
antidepressant drugs that inhibit the enzyme monoamine oxidase in the brain, which results in higher levels of a number of neurotransmitters
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
antidepressant drugs which inhibit the reuptake of neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine
tricyclic antidepressants
antidepressant drugs thought to act more selectively on serotonin receptors
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
drug which reduces the symptoms of mania (agitation, excitement, grandiosity)
other drugs which are used in the treatment of mania
anticonvulsants and calcium channel blockers
antianxiety drugs which supress the central nervous system, decreasing the activity of a variety of types of neurons
drugs which reduce symptoms of anxiety (fearfulness, worry, tension); include nembutal and valium
antianxiety drugs
antianxiety drugs which appear to reduce the symptoms of anxiety without interfering substantially with an individual's ability to function in daily life
series of treatments in which a brain seizure is induced by passing electrical current through the patient's brain
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
procedure in which the frontal lobes of the brain were severed from the lower centers of the brain in people suffering from psychosis
prefrontal lobotomy
therapy using powerful magnets to stimulate targeted areas of the brain
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
therapies focused on uncovering and resolving unconscious conflicts that are thought to drive psychological symptoms
psychodynamic therapies
a client is taught to talk about whatever comes to mind, trying not to censor any thoughts
free association
reluctance to talk about material during psychotherapy
when the client reacts to the therapist as if the therapist were an important person in the client's early development
going over and over
working through
the expression of emotions connected to memories and conflicts
by being empathetic and supportive, and by listening nonjudgementally, the therapist creates a relationship of trust with the client, which gives the client the freedom and courage to explore difficult issues
therapeutic alliance
therapy geared toward helping clients discover their greatest potential through self-exploration
humanistic or person-centered therapy
therapy with three essential parts: therapist communicates a genuineness in his or her role as helper to the client, therapist shows unconditional positive regard for the client, and therapist communicates an empathetic understanding of the client by making it clear that he or she understands and accepts the client's underlying feelings and search for self
client-centered therapy
a method of responding in which the therapist expresses an attempt to understand what the client is experiencing and trying to communicate
therapies focused on identifying the reinforcements and punishments contributing to a person's maladaptive behaviours and on changing specific behaviours
behaviour therapies
the therapist works with the client to identify the specific circumstances that seem to elicit the client's unwanted behaviour or emotional responses
behavioural assessment
therapist takes the role of a person to whom the client feels they react badly, then observes the client's behaviour to assess what aspects of that behaviour need to change for the client to be effective in interpersonal interactions
therapy which is a gradual method for extinguishing anxiety responses to stimuli and the maladaptive behaviour that often accompanies this anxiety
systematic desensitization therapy
the client watches the therapist in a situation that would induce anxiety for them and is encouraged to initate the therapist's behaviours and reactions
form of systematic desensitization in which the patient is asked to experience the negative stimulus directly
in vivo exposure
technique for extinguishing unwanted behaviours which involves exposing clients to feared stimuli or situations to an excessive degree while preventing them from avoiding that situation
flooding or implosive therapy
technique in which a patient receives a small chip or token each time he or she exhibited a desired behaviour which can be exchanged for privileges
token economy
form of social skills training through operant conditioning in order to help people with a wide variety of problems in interacting and communicating with others
response shaping
therapies which focus on challenging people's maladaptive interpretations of events or ways of thinking and replacing them with more adaptive ways of thinking
cognitive therapies
assignments presented to the client as ways of testing hypotheses and gathering information that will be useful in therapy, regardless of the outcome
behavioural assignments
therapy which focuses on the client's pattern of relationships with important people in his or her own life
interpersonal therapy (IPT)
therapy based on the belief that an individual's problems are always rooted in interpersonal systems, particularly in the systems called families
family systems therapy
therapy in which members of a group share an experience
group therapy
people who come together to deal with a common experience or need and organize themselves without the help of mental-health professionals
self-help groups
centers intended to provide mental-health care based in the community, often from teams of social workers, therapists, and physicians who coordinate care
community mental-health centers
centers which offer people with long-term mental-health problems the opportunity to live in a structured, supportive environment while they are trying to reestablish a job and ties to family and friends
halfway houses
centers which allow people to obtain treatment all day, as well as occupational and rehabilitative therapies, but to live at home at night
day treatment centers
stopping the development of disorders before they start
primary prevention
catching disopders in their earliest stages and providing treatment designed to reduce their development
secondary prevention
experiencing events that we perceive as endangering our physical or psychological well-being
physiological responses developed through evolution to prepare the body to fight a threat or to flee from it
fight-or-flight response
group of hormones, often used as a measure of stress
response to stress that all organisms show; three phases are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
general adaptation syndrome
field of psychology which investigates the effects of stress and other psychological factors on physical illness
health psychology
occurs when the blood vessels that supply the heart muscles are narrowed or closed by the gradual buildup of a hard, fatty substance called plaque, blocking the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the heart
coronary heart disease (CHD)
high blood pressure
system which protects the body from disease-causing microorganisms
immune system
the cells of the immune system that attack viruses
sleep disorders which involve abnormalities in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep
sleep disorders which involve abnormal behavioural and physiological events occurring during sleep
difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep or sleep that chronically does not restore energy and alertness
therapy involving a set of instructions designed to curtail behaviours that might interfere with sleep and to regulate sleep-wake schedules
stimulus-control therapy
therapy involving initially restricting the amount of time insomniacs can try to sleep in the night, and gradually increasing it as their sleep becomes more efficient
sleep restriction therapy
sleep disorder in which people are chronically sleepy and sleep for long periods at a time
irresistible attacks of sleep
episodes of sudden loss of muscle tone, lasting from a few seconds to minutes
repeated episodes of upper-airway obstruction during sleep
sleep apnea
behaviour pattern; the three components are a sense of time urgency, easily aroused hostility, and competitive achievement strivings
type A behaviour pattern
techniques which provide people with explicit information about how to engage in positive health-related behaviours and with opportunities to engage in these behaviours in increasingly challenging situations
guided mastery techniques
method involving several techniques designed to help people change bodily processes by learning to identify signs that the processes are going awry and then learning ways of controlling the processes
disorder with three types of symptoms: reexperiencing the traumatic event, emotional numbing and detachment, and hypervigilance and chronic arousal
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
symptoms that indicate a detachment from the trauma and from ongoing events
dissociative symptoms
disorder which has symptoms similar to those of PTSD but occurs within one month of a stressor and lasts less than four weeks
acute stress disorder
stress-related disorder which consists of emotional and behavioural symptoms (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and/or antisocial behaviours) that arise within three months of the onset of a stressor
adjustment disorder
therapy in which the client identifies thoughts and situations that create anxiety, ranking them from most anxiety-provoking to least, then the therapist begins to take the client through this hierarchy, using relaxation techniques to quell anxiety
systematic desensitization therapy
techniques which include the client's yelling "NO" loudly when realizing he or she is thinking about the trauma, as well as learning to engage in positive activities that distract thoughts away from the trauma
thought-stopping techniques
technique which teaches clients skills for overcoming problems in their lives that are increasing their stress and that may be the result of PTSD
stress-management interventions
therapy for trauma survivors that involves the client attending to the image of the trauma, thoughts about the trauma, and the physical sensations of anxiety aroused by the trauma while the therapist quickly moves a finger back and forth in front of the client's eyes to elicit a series of repeated, rapid, jerky, side-to-side eye movements
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
state characterized by four symptoms: physiological, or somatic, symptoms (muscle tension, heart palpitations, stomach pains, need to urinate), emotional symptoms (sense of fearfulness and watchfulness), cognitive symptoms (unrealistic worries that something bad is happening or is about to happen), and behavioural symptoms (avoiding situations because of fears)
disorders in which the anxiety aroused by unconscious conflicts could not be quelled or channeled by defense mechanisms
short but intense periods in which one experiences many symptoms of anxiety (heart palpitations, trembling, a feeling of choking, dizziness, intense dread, etc.)
panic attacks
when panic attacks become a common occurrence, when the panic attacks are usually not provoked by any particular situation, and when a person begins to worry about having attacks and changes behaviours as a result of this worry; characterized by sudden bursts of anxiety symptoms, a sense of loss of control or unreality, and the sense that one is dying
panic disorder
neurotransmitter associated with panic disorder
area of the brain stem associated with paniclike responses upon stimulation
locus ceruleus
the belief that bodily systems have harmful consequences
anxiety sensitivity
a heightened awareness of bodily cues that a panic attack may soon happen
interoceptive awareness
fear of places one thinks one might have trouble escaping or getting help in an emergency (crowded, bustling places, enclosed spaces, wide open spaces)
phobias where when people afflicted with them encounter their feared objects or situations, their anxiety is immediate and intense, and they may even have full panic attacks
specific phobias
type of specific phobia focused on specific animals or insects
animal type phobias
type of specific phobia focused on events or situations in the natural environment
natural environment type phobias
type of specific phobia usually involving a fear of public transportation, tunnels, bridges, elevators, flying, and driving
situational type phobias
type of specific phobia involving fear of seeing blood or an injury
blood-injection-injury type phobias
phobia involving fear of being judged or embarassing oneself in front of other people
social phobia
when running away from or avoidance of a feared object is reinforced by the subsequent reduction of their anxiety
negative reinforcement
evolution may have selected for the rapid conditioning of the fear of certain objects or situations so now we carry the vestiges of our evolutionary history and are biologically prepared to learn certain associations quickly
prepared classical conditioning
technique where therapists teach clients to tense the muscles in their arms, legs, and chest until they feel the warmth of their blood rising in their face in order to counteract their typical biological response when confronted with a phobic object
applied tension technique
state of perpetual anxiety in almost all situations
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
anxiety occurring when we face a real danger or threat
realistic anxiety
anxiety occuring when we are repeatedly prevented from expressing our id impulses (the energy of those impulses is not allowed release, and it causes anxiety)
neurotic anxiety
anxiety occurring when we have been punished for expressing our id impulses, and we come to associate those impulses with punishment, causing anxiety
moral anxiety
harsh self-standards one feels one must meet in order to be acceptable
conditions of worth
a universal human fear of the limits and responsibilities of one's existence
existential anxiety
a neurotransmitter that carries inhibitory messages from one neuron to another; deficiency is associated with generalized anxiety disorder
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
drug which appears to reduce anxiety by blocking serotonin receptors; belongs to the drug class azaspirones
thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses that are persistent, that the individual feels intrude upon his or her consciousness without control, and that cause significant anxiety or distress
repetitive behaviours or mental acts that an individual feels he or she mush perform
anxiety disorder where people experience anxiety as a result of their obsessional thoughts and when they cannot carry out their compulsive behaviours
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
a part of the basal ganglia which allows only the strongest impulses to carry through to the thalamus; dysfunction is associated with OCD
caudate nucleus
group of disorders in which people experience significant physical symptoms for which there is no apparent organic cause
somatoform disorders
medical disorders in which people have an acute physical illness or defect that can be documented with medical tests and that is being worsened by psychological factors
psychosomatic disorders
when people fake a symptom or disorder in order to avoid an unwanted situation or in order to gain something
disorders in which a person deliberately fakes an illness to gain medical attention
factitious disorders
when parents fake or even create illnesses in their children in order to gain attention for themselves
factitious disorder by proxy
somatoform disorder in which people lose functioning in a part of their bodies, apparently due to neurological or other medical causes
conversion disorder
symptom in which people lose all feeling in one hand, as if they were wearing a glove that wiped out physical sensation
glove anesthesia
somatoform disorder in which patients have a long history of complaints about physical symptoms, affecting many different areas of the body, for which medical attention has been sought but that appear to have no physical cause
somatization disorder
somatoform disorder in which patients complain of chronic, unexplainable pain
pain disorder
somatoform disorder in which people worry that they have a serious disease (but do not always experience severe physical symptoms)
somatoform disorder in which people are excessively preoccupied with a part of their bodies that they believe is defective
body dysmorphic disorder
group of disorders which involve frequent experiences in which various aspects of a person's "self" are split off from each other and felt as separate
dissociative disorders
dissociative disorder in which people have more than one distince identity or personality, and each personality appears to have different ways of perceiving and relating to the world
dissociative identity disorder (DID)
dissociative disorder in which a person will suddenly pick up and move to a new place, assume a new identity, and have no memory for his previous identity
dissociative fugue
dissociative disorder in which people have significant periods of amnesia but do not assume new personalities or identities; they cannot remember important facts about their lives and their personal identities and are typically aware that there are large gaps in their memory or knowledge of themselves
dissociative amnesia
amnesia caused by a brain injury resulting from disease, drugs, accidents, or surgery; often involves anterograde amnesia (inability to remember new information)
organic amnesia
inability to remember new information
anterograde amnesia
amnesia which arises in the absence of any brain injury or disease and is thought to have psychological causes
psychogenic amnesia
inability to remember information from the past
retrograde amnesia
dissociative disorder in which people have frequent episodes in which they feel detached from their own mental processes or bodies, as if they are outside observers of themselves
depersonalization disorder
mood disorder in which a person oscillates between periods of mania and periods of depression
bipolar disorder
period of great energy and enthusiasm for everything, high self-esteem, and elevated or irritable mood
period of low energy and enthusiasm and lack of joy; mood disorder including disturbances in emotion (sadness, loss of interest), bodily function (loss of sleep, appetite, and sexual drive), behaviour (retardation or agitation), and thought (worthlessness, guilt, suicidality)
mood disorder in which people experience depression (no mania)
unipolar depression
beliefs with no basis in reality
seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not real
category of unipolar depression in which a person experiences either depressed mood or loss of interest in usual activities, plus at least four other symptoms of depression chronically for at least two weeks
major depression
category of unipolar depression in which a person experiences depressed mood plus two other symptoms of depression for at least two years
dysthymic disorder
disorder where people experience both major depression and dysthymic disorder
double depression
depression with seasonal pattern
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
mood disorder in which people show an elevated, expansive, or irritable mood for at least one week, plus at least three other symptoms of mania, and eventually fall into a depressive episode (could be severe or relatively mild and infrequent)
bipolar I disorder
mood disorder in which people experience severe episodes of depression that meet the criteria for major depression, but their episodes of mania are milder and are known as hypomania
bipolar II disorder
milder mania state; has the same symptoms as mania but these symptoms are not severe enough to interfere with daily functioning and do not involve hallucinations or delusions
mood disorder in which a person alternates between hypomania and moderate depression chronically over at least a two-year period
cyclothymic disorder
mood disorder where a person has four or more cycles of mania and depression within a year
rapid cycling bipolar disorder
class of neurotransmitters that have been implicated most often in the mood disorders
specific neurotransmitters found in large concentrations in the limbic system thought to cause both depression and mania
norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine
a part of the brain associated with the regulation of sleep, appetite, and emotional processes
limbic system
theory that depression is caused by a reduction in the amount of norepinephrine or serotonin in the synapses between neurons and that mania is caused by an excess of the monoamines or perhaps dysregulation of the levels of these amines, especially dopamine
monoamine theories
biological feedback system in which the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal cortex work together, richly interconnected with the limbic system and the cerebral cortex; involved in the fight-or-flight response; may be involved in the development of depression
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis)
diagnosis of depressions during the premenstrual period
premenstrual dysphoric disorder
theory that suggests that life stress leads to depression because it reduces the positive reinforcers in a person's life; the person begins to withdraw, which only results in a further reduction in reinforcers, which leads to more withdrawl, and a self-perpetuating chain is created
behavioural theory of depression
theory that suggests that the stressful type of event most likely to lead to depression is uncontrollable negative events; such events, especially if frequent or chronic, can lead people to believe that they are helpless to control important outcomes in their environment
learned helplessness theory
loss of motivation, reduction in actions that might control the environment, and inability to learn how to control situations that are controllable as a result of a belief in helplessness
learned helplessness defecits
peoples' negative views of themselves, of the world, and of the future
negative cognitive triad
an explanation of why an event happened
causal attribution
theory that people who habitually explain negative events by causes that are internal, stable, and global blame themselves for these negative events, expect negative events to recur in the future, and expect to experience negative events in many areas of their lives; these expectations lead them to experience long-term learned helplessness defecits plus self-esteem loss in many areas of their lives
reformulated learned helplessness theory
when asked to make judgements about how much control they have over situations that are actually uncontrollable, people with depression are quite accurate
depressive realism
theory that focuses more on the process of thinking, rather than the context of thinking, as a contributor to depression
ruminative response styles theory
theory that a depressed person's self-blame and punishment is actually blame and punishment of others who have abandoned them
introjected hostility theory
theories that are concerned with people's close relationships and their roles in those relationships; disturbences in these roles are thought to be the main source of depression
interpersonal theories of depression
expectations that one must be or do certain things in order to win the approval or others; developed in children with insecure attachments
contingenies of self-worth
constantly looking for assurances from others that they are accepted and loved
excessive reassurance seeking
people born in one historical period are at different risk for a disorder than are people born in another historical period
cohort effect
drugs which help reduce the symptoms of depression apparently by preventing the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin in the synapses or by changing the responsiveness of the receptors for these neurotransmitters
tricyclic antidepressants
drugs used to help reduce the symptoms of depression by increasing the levels of the neurotransmitters in the synapses
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
drugs used to help reduce the symptoms of depression by changing the responsiveness of the receptors for norepinephrine and serotonin, working more directly to affect serotonin
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
method for treatment of depression involving stimulating the vagus nerve with a small electronic device; the vagus nerve is a part of the autonomic nervous system that carries information from the head, neck, thorax, and abdomen to several areas of the brain, including the hypothalamus and amygdala
vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)
therapy to help reduce SAD by exposing patients to bright lights for a few hours each day during the winter months
light therapy
classes of drugs which are alternatives to lithium for the treatment of mania
anticonvulsants, antipsychotic drugs, and calcium channel blockers
therapies which focus on increasing the number of positive reinforcers and decreasing the number of aversive experiences in an individual's life by helping the depressed person change his or her ways of interacting with the environment and other people
behaviour therapies
therapy that aims to change the negative, hopeless patterns of thinking described by the cognitive models of depression and also to help people with depression solve concrete problems in their lives and develop skills for being more effective in their worlds, so that they no longer have the defecits in reinforcers described by behavioural theories of depression
cognitive-behavioural therapy
therapy that focuses on four types of interpersonal problems as sources of depression: grief and loss, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal skills defecits
interpersonal therapy (IPT)
therapies in which the therapist closely observes a depressed client's behaviour to analyze the source of his or her depression, focusing on transference (the ways in which the client treats the therapist as though the therapist were someone else), recollection of recent events and distant events, and recounting of dreams
psychodynamic therapies
the purposeful taking of one's own life
people who clearly and explicitly seek to end their lives
death seekers
people who have a clear intention to die but believe that they are simply hastening an inevitable death
death initiators
people who intend to end their lives but do not believe that this means the end of their existence; they see their death as the beginning of a new and better life
death ignorers
people who are ambivalent about dying, and they take actions that greatly increase their chances of death
death darers
acts in which people indirectly contribute to their own death, perhaps unconsciously
subintentional deaths
suicide committed by people who feel alienated from others, empty of social contacts, and alone in an unsupportive world
egoistic suicide
suicide committed by people who experience severe disorientation because of a major change in their relationships to society
anomic suicide
suicide committed by people who believe that taking their own lives will benefit society in some way
altruistic suicide
when two or more suicides or attempted suicides are nonrandomly bunched in space or time
suicide cluster
people somehow "catch" suicidal intentions and behaviours from those who commit suicide
suicide contagion
the general tendency to act on one's impulses rather than to inhibit them when it is appropriate to do so
the sense that the future is bleak and there is no way of making it more positive
seeing everything in either/or terms
dichotomous thinking
community-based programs available to help people who are highly suicidal deal in the short term with their feelings and then refer them for longer care to mental-health specialists
crisis intervention
crisis intervention done over the phone
suicide hot lines
therapy aimed at addressing suicidal behaviours and thoughts which focuses on difficulties in managing negetive emotions and in controlling impulsive behaviours; it involves a number of techniques aimed at increasing problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, and skills in managing negative emotions
dialectical behaviour therapy
mercy killing
all the ways we have of acting, thinking, believing, and feeling that make each of us unique
category of disorders marked by a long-standing pattern of maladaptive behaviours, thoughts, and feelings
personality disorders
cluster of personality disorders where people behave in ways that are similar to the behaviours of people with schizophrenia or paranoid psychotic disorder, but they retain their grasp on reality to a greater degree than do people who are psychotic
cluster A: odd-eccentric personality disorders
cluster A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive and unwarranted mistrust and suspicion of others
paranoid personality disorder
cluster A personality disorder where people lack the desire to form interpersonal relationships and are emotionally cold in interactions with others
schizoid personality disorder
cluster A personality disorder where people tend to be socially isolated, to have a restricted range of emotions, and to be uncomfortable in interpersonal interactions; chronic pattern of inhibited or inappropriate emotion and social behaviour, aberrant cognitions, disorganized speech
schizotypal personality disorder
cluster of personality disorders where people engage in behaviours that are dramatic and impulsive, and they often show little regard for their own safety or the safety of others
cluster B: dramatic-emotional personality disorders
cluster B personality disorder in which people have chronic antisocial behaviours; pervasive pattern of criminal, impulsive, callous, or ruthless behaviour; disregard for the rights of others; no respect for social norms
antisocial personality disorder
characterized by a superficial charm, a grandiose sense of self-worth, a tendency toward boredom and need for stimulation, pathological lying, an ability to be conning and manipulative, and a lack of remorse
neurotransmitter whose defecit is associated with antisocial personality disorder
the ability to sustain concentration, abstract reasoning, concept and goal formation, the ability to anticipate and plan, the capacity to program and initiate purposive sequences of behaviour, self-monitoring and self-awareness, and the ability to shift from maladaptive patterns of behaviour to more adaptive ones
executive functions
cluster B personality disorder characterized by rapidly shifting and unstable mood, self-concept, and interpersonal relationships, impulsive behaviour, transient dissociative states, and self-effacement; vacillate between all-good and all-bad evaluations of themselves and others
borderline personality disorder
therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder focused on helping clients gain a more realistic and positive sense of self, learn adaptive skills for solving problems and regulating emotions, and correct their dichotomous thinking
dialectical behaviour therapy
cluster B personality disorder characterized by rapidly shifting moods, unstable relationships, and intense need for attention and approval; dramatic, seductive behaviour; flamboyant; people are overly dependent and solicitous of others
histrionic personality disorder
cluster B personality disorder characterized by grandiose thoughts and feelings of one's own worth; obliviousness to others' needs; exploitative, arrogant demeanor; dismissive of others
narcissistic personality disorder
cluster of personality disorders characterized by a chronic sense of anxiety or fearfulness and behaviours intended to ward off feared situations
cluster C: anxious-fearful personality disorders
cluster C personality disorder characterized by pervasive anxiety, a sense of inadequacy, and a fear of being criticized, which lead to the avoidance of social interaction and nervousness
avoidant personality disorder
cluster C personality disorder characterized by pervasive selflessness, a need to be cared for, and a fear of rejection, leading to total dependence on and submission to others
dependent personality disorder
cluster C personality disorder characterized by pervasive rigidity in one's activities and interpersonal relationships, including emotional constriction, extreme perfectionism, and anxiety about even minor disruptions in one's routine
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
theory which posits that any individual's personality is organized along five broad dimensions, or factors, of personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
five-factor model
professionals who have an M.D. degree and have specialized training in the treatment of psychological problems; can prescribe medication and some have been trained to conduct psychotherapies
professionals who typically have a Ph.D. in psychology, with a specialization in psychological problems; can conduct psychotherapies but most can't prescribe medication
clinical psychologists
professionals who specialize in helping families, couples, and children overcome problems that are interfering with their well-being
marriage and family therapists
professionals who have a master's degree in social work and often focus on helping people with psychological problems overcome the social conditions contributing to their problems
clinical social workers
professionals who have a degree in nursing, with a specialization in the treatment of people with severe psychological problems; often work on inpatient psychiatric wards in hospitals, delivering medical care and certain forms of psychotherapy; in some states they have privileges to write prescriptions
psychiatric nurses
structure of the brain in the limbic system important in the regulation of emotion and memory
structure of the brain in the limbic system important in memory
bridge of fibers passing information between the two cerebral hemispheres
corpus callosum
brain structure that serves as a relay center for the cortex; handles incoming and outgoing signals
brain structure involved in balance and the control of movement
brain structure responsible for regulating largely unconscious functions such as breathing and circulation
brain structure involved in sleep and arousal
a network of neurons related to sleep, arousal, and attention
reticular formation
structure responsible for communicating between the brain and the rest of the body; involved with simple reflexes
spinal cord
neurotransmitter which plays a particularly important role in mental health, regulating emotions and impulses, such as aggression
neurotransmitter that is prominent in areas of the brain that regulate our experience of reinforcements or rewards, and it is affected by substances, such as alcohol, that we find rewarding; also important to the functioning of muscle systems
neurotransmitter that is produced mainly by neurons in the brain stem; related to mood levels
neurotransmitter which inhibits the action of other neurotransmitters; plays an important role in anxiety symptoms
gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA
retreating to a behaviour of an earlier developmental period to prevent anxiety and satisfy current needs
refusing to perceive or accept reality
discharging unacceptable feelings against someone or something other than the true target of these feelings
inventing an acceptable motive to explain unacceptably motivated behaviour
adopting a cold, distant perspective on a matter that actually creates strong, unpleasant feelings
attributing one's own unacceptable motives or desires to someone else
adopting a set of attitudes and behaviours that are the opposite of one's true dispositions
reaction formation
adopting the ideas, values, and tendencies of someone in a superior position in order to evaluate self-worth
translating wishes and needs into socially acceptable behaviour
family which is resistant to and isolated from all forces outside the family and does not adopt well to changes within the family
inflexible family
family in which each member is too greatly involved in the lives of the other members, to the point that individuals do not have personal autonomy and can feel controlled
enmeshed family
family in which the members pay no attention to each other and operate as individual units isolated from other family members
disengaged family
family in which parents avoid dealing with conflicts with each other by always keeping their children involved in their conversations and activities
pathological triangular relationships
DSM-IV axis on which a clinician lists any major disorders for which the person qualifies, with the exclusion of mental retardation and personality disorders (ex: delerium, substance-related disorders, schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, sleep disorders, etc); most of the disorders tend to wax and wane across the life span
Axis I
DSM-IV axis on which the clinician lists mental retardation or any personality disorders for which the person qualifies; lifelong disorders
Axis II
DSM-IV axis on which the clinician notes any medical or physical diseases from which the person is suffering
Axis III
DSM-IV axis on which the clinician rates the severity of the psychosocial stressors the client is facing (ex: educational problems, occupational problems, housing problems, economic problems, etc)
Axis IV
DSM-IV axis on which the clinician rates the level at which the client is able to function in daily life on a scale of 10-100 (10= persistent danger of severely hurting self or others, 100= superior functioning in a wide range of areas)
Axis V
model which suggests that psychological factors, such as stressful experiences or certain personality characteristics, directly cause changes in the physiology of the body, which in turn cause or exacerbate disease
direct effects model
model which suggests that psychological factors must interact with a preexisting biological vunerability to a disease in order for an individual to develop the disease
interactive model
model which suggests that psychological factors affect disease largely by influencing whether people engage in health-promoting behaviours
indirect effects model
subtype of depression characterized by inability to experience pleasure, distinct depressed mood, depression regularly worse in morning, early morning awakening, marked psychomotor retardation or agitation, significant anorexia or weight loss, excessive guilt
depression with melancholic features
subtype of depression characterized by presence of depressing delusions or hallucinations
depression with psychotic features
subtype of depression characterized by catatonic behaviours: catalepsy, excessive motor activity, severe disturbances in sleep
depression with catatonic features
subtype of depression characterized by positive mood reactions to some events, significant weight gain or increase in appetite, hypersomnia, heavy or laden feelings in arms or legs, long-standing pattern of seneitivity to interpersonal rejection
depression with atypical features
subtype of depression characterized by onset of major depressive episode within four weeks of delivery of child
depression with postpartum onset
subtype of depression characterized by history of at least two years in which major depressive episodes occur during one season of the year (usually winter) and remit when the season is over
depression with seasonal pattern
personality factor in which individuals high on the scale are chronically anxious, hostile, depressed, self-conscious, and impulsive and have poor coping skills; people low on the scale lack these problems
personality factor in which individuals high on the scale are sociable, active, talkative, interpersonally oriented, optimistic, fun-loving, and affectionate; people low on the scale are reserved, sober, aloof, independent, and quiet
personality factor in which individuals high on the scale actively seek and appreciate experiences for their own sake and are curious, imaginative, and willing to entertain new and unconventional ideas; people low in this factor are conventional in their beliefs and attitudes, conservative in their tastes, dogmatic, rigid in their beliefs, set in their ways, and emotionally unresponsive
openness to experience
personality factor in which individuals high on the scale are softhearted, good-natured, trusting, helpful, forgiving, and altruistic; people low in this factor are cynical, rude, suspicious, uncooperative, and irritable and can be manipulative, vengeful, and ruthless
personality factor in which individuals high on the scale are organized, reliable, hardworking, self-directed, punctual, scrupulous, ambitious, and persevering; people low in this factor are aimless, unreliable, lazy, careless, lax, negligent, and hedonistic
you see things in black-and-white categories; if your performance falls short of perfect, you see yourself as a total failure
all-or-nothing thinking
you see a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat
you pick out a single negative detail and dwell on it exclusively, so that your vision of all reality becomes darkened, like a drop of ink that discolours an entire beaker of water
mental filter
you reject positive experiences by insisting they "don't count" for some reason; in this way you can maintain a negative belief that is contradicted by your everyday experiences
disqualifying the positive
you make a negative interpretation, even though there are no definite facts that convincingly support your conclusion: (a) mind reading- you arbitrarily conclude that someone is reacting negatively to you, and you don't bother to check this out, (b) the fortune teller error- you anticipate that things will turn out badly, and you feel convinced that your prediction is an already established fact
jumping to conclusions
you exaggerate the importance of things (such as your goof-up or someone else's achievement), or you inappropriately shrink things until they appear tiny (your own desirable qualities or another's imperfections; this is also called the "binocular trick"
magnification (catastrophizing) or minimizing
you assume that your negative emotions necessarily reflect the way things really are (i feel it, therefore it must be true)
emotional reasoning
you try to motivate yourself with "shoulds" and "shouldn'ts", as if you had to be whipped and punished before you could be expected to do anything; "must" and "oughts" are also offenders; the emotional consequence is guilt; when you direct "should" statements toward others, you feel anger, frustration, and resentment
"should" statements
extreme form of overgeneralization; instead of describing your error, you attach a negative label to yourself ("i'm a loser"); when someone else's behaviour rubs you the wrong way, you attach a negative label to that person; mislabeling involves describing an event with language that is highly coloured and emotionally loaded
labeling and mislabeling
you see yourself as the cause of a negative external event, which, in fact, you were not primarily responsible for