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127 Cards in this Set

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What is required to make a DIAGNOSIS of MENTAL RETARDATION?
3 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA:

~IQ <70

~CONCURRENT DEFICITS/IMPAIRMENTS IN AT LEAST 2 AREAS

~onset: PRIOR TO AGE 18
What are some EARLY SIGNS OF MR?
~DELAYS IN MOTOR DEV.

~A LACK OF AGE APPROPRIATE INTERESTS IN ENVIRON STIMULI
In MR, what are examples of LACK OF AGE APPROPRIATE INTERESTS?
~NO EYE CONTACT DURING EATING

~LESS RESPONSIVE TO VOICE & MOVEMENT
ETIOLOGY/%rates OF MR
~30%-EMBRYONIC DEV/PRE-NATAL

~15%-20%-ENVIRON

~10%-PREGN/PERINATAL

~5%-HEREDITARY

~30% TO 40%-UNKNOWN
What is PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU)?
~A rare RECESSIVE GENE SYNDROME.


~INABILITY TO METABOLIZE HIGH PROTEIN FOODS (eg power bars) OR THE AMINO-ACID, PHENYLALANINE (aspartame contains 50% of it)
Describe DOWN SYNDROME.
~aka "TRISOMY 21"

~caused by an EXTRA CHROMOSOME

~10% - 31% MOD. TO SEV. MR
What is BORDERLINE INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONIONG?
~An IQ 71 TO 84

~IQ bet 1 & 2 SD below mean
What is the IQ of someone w/ MR & w/ SUBSTANTIAL DEFICITS in ADAPTIVE FUNCTIONING?
-IQ 71 TO 75
What is required for DX LEARNING DISORDERS?
2 OR MORE SD BET. ACHIEV. & IQ SCORES (SIGNIFICANT)
What are the assoc. features of LEARNING DISORDERS?
~Delays in LANGAUGE DEV &/or MOTOR COORD, ATTENTION & MEMORY DEFICITS.

~LOW SELF-ESTEEM.

~AVERAGE TO ABOVE AVERAGE IQ

~COMORBID DISORDER, 20% TO 30% HAVE ADHD

~AT-RISK FOR ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR
What is the PROGNOSIS of LEARNING DISORDERS?
~Problems progress to ADOLES-ADULTHOOD

~1/3 as adults have PSYCHOSOCIAL problems.
WHAT ARE THE AGES WHEN STUTTERING OCCURS?
~2 --- 7 YO

(60% REMIT BY 16 YO)

~ 3 X MALES
What are the other COMMUNICATION DISORDERS?
~EXPRESSIVE language disorder

~MIXED EXPRESSIVE-RECEPTIVE language disorder

~PHONOLOGICAL DISORDER
CATEGORIES OF AUTISTIC DISORDER
QUALITATIVE IMPAIRMENT:

****COMMUNICATION
****SOCIAL INTERACTION

~RESTRICTED, REPETITIVE, AND STEREOTYPED BEHAVIOR, INTERESTS, & ACTIVITIES
What is the TXT of choice for STUTERING?
-HABIT REVERSAL TRAINING

(Based on AWARENESS training & SOCIAL SUPPORT)
How many sx's are required when DIAGNOSING AUTISTIC DISORDER?
minimum:

~2 sx's FROM CATEGORY 1

~1 sx from the 2nd and 3rd categories

(6 sx's TOTAL)

~some sx's < 3 YO
What are STEREOTYPED BEHAVIORS?
-HAND-FLAPPING

-ROCKING

-SPINNING
What are some signs for the BEST OUTOCOME for AUTISTIC CHILDREN?
~COMMUNICATE BY 5 OR 6 YO

~> or = to 70 IQ

~LATER ONSET OF SX'S
ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM
~SMALL CEREBELLUM

~BIG VENTRICLES

~ABNORMAL LEVELS OF DOPA, NORE, SERO

~LANGUAGE SYMPTOMS: A disturbance in the pragmatic use of language as manifested by an inability to integrate words with gestures
What is addressed in the TREATMENT OF AUTISM?
-ENHANCE:

~DAILY LIVING
~COMMUNICATION
~SOCIAL SKILLS

-DECREASE UNDESIRABLE BEH
What are other TREATMENTS of AUTISM CONT'D?
~SHAPING AND DISCRIMINATION (IMPROVE COMMUNICATION)

~VOCATIONAL TRAINING & PLACEMENT

(SHELTERED WORKSHOPS & SUPPORTED EMPLOYMENT)
Describe what occurs in RETT'S DISORDER.
~NORMAL DEV FOR 5 MONTHS, THEN:

~HEAD GROWTH DECELERATION

~LOSS OF PURPOSEFUL HAND SKILLS

~DEV OF STEREOTYPICAL HAND MOV
What is CHILDHOOD DISINTEGRATIVE DISORDER?
Indiv. dev NORMALLY for 2 YEARS

REGRESSION IN AT LEAST 2 AREAS OF FUNCTIONING:

~MOTOR

~PLAY

~SOCIAL SKILLS

~ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR
What is a LEARNING DISORDER AT-RISK FACTOR?

What is the GENDER RATIO for READING DISORDER?
At Risk for ANTISOCIAL Behaviors.

Reading Disorder, is more common in BOYS than girls.
What is the ETIOLOGY of LEARNING DISORDERS?
~Cerebellar-Vestibular Dysfunction (e.g. Otitis Medial)

~INCOMPLETE Dominance & HEMISPHERE Abnormalities

~Exposure to TOXINS (e.g. Lead)

~Deficit in PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING

~GENETIC COMPONENT, the closer the genetic make-up, the greater the CONCORDANCE rate)
ADHD GENDER RATIOS?
~4 TO 9 X MORE IN BOYS

~EQUAL GENDER RATIO for INATTENTIVE TYPE

~EQUAL RATES IN ADULTS
BRAIN ABNORMALITIES in ADHD
DECREASED ACTIVITY in:

~FRONTAL LOBES
~BASAL GANGLIA

SMALL:

~CAUDATE NUCLEUS
~GLOBUS PALLIDUS
~PREFRONTAL CORTEX
PSYCHOTROPIC TXT OF ADHD
~METHYLPHENIDATE aka RITALIN

~OTHER CNS STIMULANTS

(GOOD FOR 75% OF CASES)
What is required for a diagnosis of CONDUCT DISORDER?
~3 OUT OF 4 SX'S

~W/I 12 MONTHS:

~AGGRESSION to ANIMALS & PPL

~DESTRUCTION of PROPERTY

~DECEITFULNESS or THEFT

~SERIOUS VIOLATION of RULES
What did MOFITT say are the 2 TYPES OF CAUSES for CONDUCT DISORDER?
1. LIFE-COURSE-PERSISTENT TYPE:

~ADVERSE ENVIRON IMPACT
~NEURO IMPAIRMENT
~WIDER RANGE OF CRIMES (VICTIM ORIENTED OFFENSES)

2. ADOLESCENCE-LIMITED TYPE:

~"MATURITY GAP"
~OFFENSES RELATING TO "I WAN'T MY INDEPENDENCE"
What is OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER?
~NEGATIVISTIC

~DEFIANT & HOSTILE BEHAVIORS TOWARD PEOPLE of AUTHORITY (teachers, parents, etc.).
What are the 2 SUBTYPES of CONDUCT DISORDER?
1. CHILDHOOD ONSET (<10 YO)
2. ADOLESCENT ONSET (>10 YO)
What are MOTOR TICS or ECHOKINESIS?
IMITATING someone ELSE'S MOVEMENTS.
What are VOCAL TICS?
1. PALILALIA:

~REPEATING ONE'S OWN SOUNDS OR WORDS

2. COPROLALIA:

~REPEATING SOCIALLY ~UNDESIREABLE WORDS
What is the appropriate psychotropic txt for TOURETTE'S DISORDER?
~HALOPERIDOL & PIMOZIDE.

(80% EFFECTIVE BUT HUGE SIDE-EFFECTS, with INCREASED TICS IN SOME BEC IT'S A PSYCHOSTIMUL)
What is the appropriate PSYCHOTROPIC TXT for TOURETTE'S DIS'S the HYPERACTIVE & INATTENTIVE TYPES?
1. CLONIDINE (anti-anxiety)

2. DESIPRAMINE (anti-depress)
What are the main MEMORY PROBLEMS or deficits in DEMENTIA? What remains INTACT?
PROBLEMS:

~RECALL
~RECOGNITION
~DECLARATIVE MEMORY

INTACT:

~PROCEDURAL MEMORY

(PSEUDODEMENTIA IS MORE ABRUPT)
What is ANOMIA?
2 DEFINITIONS:

1. KNOWING A PARTICULAR WORD BUT UNABLE TO SPEAK IT.

2. YOU ARE UNABLE TO RECALL THE NAME OF THE OBJECT.

ANOMIA
STAGE 1 ALZHEIMER'S
~1 TO 3 YEARS:
-ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA for DECL MEMORIES (e.g. doctors appt)
-DEFICITS in VISUOSPATIAL SKILLS (WANDERING)
-INDIFFERENCE, IRRITABILITY, & SADNESS
-ANOMIA
Loss of cholinergic cells (cells that secrete ACh) is evident during the early stages of the disorder, especially in the hippocampus and cortex.
STAGE 2 ALZHEIMER'S
~2 TO 10 YEARS:
-INCREASED ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA
-FLAT or LABILE MOOD
-RESTLESSNESS & AGITATION
-DELUSION
-FLUENT APHASIA
-ACALCULIA
-IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA
What is IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA?
INABILITY to TRANSLATE an IDEA INTO MOVEMENT
STAGE 3 ALZHEIMER'S
~8 TO 12 YEARS:
-SEVERELY DETERIORATED INTELLECUTAL FUNCTIONING
-APATHY
-LIMB RIGIDITY
-URINARY & FETAL INCONTINENCE
What are the CHARACTERISTICS SX's of VASCULAR DEMENTIA?
~STEPWISE FLUCTUATING COURSE with a "PATCHY" PATTERN of SX'S

~Impaired ability to LEARN NEW information OR inability to RECALL previously learned information
What is DEMENTIA DUE to PARKINSON'S DISEASE
~BRADYKINESIA-SLOWNESS OF MOVEMENT
~AKATHESIA-"CRUEL RESTLESSNESS"
~PRESENCE OF LEWY BODIES IN SUBSTANTIA NIGRA

SMART:

S-huffling Gait

M-ask Like Face

A-kinesia

R-igidity

T-remor
WHAT are the MOST COMMON PRECIPITANTS to RELAPSE among SUBSTANCE ABUSE?
~ANXIETY
~DEPRESSION
~FRUSTRATIONS
~NEGATIVE EMOTIONS
What are the NICOTINE DEPENDENCE QUITTING statistics?
~1-5 YEARS AFTER QUITTING GOOD HEALTH

~7.5% MAINTAIN LONG-TERM ABSTINENCE

~91% QUIT ON THER OWN
What are the SX'S of ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL?
~AUTONOMIC HYPERACTIVITY (SWEATING AND TACHYCARDIA)
~HAND TREMOR
~INSOMNIA
~NAUSEA OR VOMITING
~TRANSIENT HALLUCINATIONS
~ANXIETY
~PSYCHOMOTOR AGITATION
~GRAND-MAL SEIZURES FOLLOWING PROLONGED USE OR HEAVY USE
What is ALCOHOL-PERSISTING AMENSTIC DISORDER or KORSOKOFF'S DISORDER?
~RETRO & ANTERO AMNESIA

(ANTEROGRADE WORST, ESPEC DECLARTIVE MEMORIES)

~THIAMINE DEFICIENCY

~RETROGRADE AMENSIA, AFFECTS LONGTERM MEMORIES MORE THEN REMOTE MEMORIES

~CONFABULATION: individual often attempts to hide by fabricating memories
What are the ACTIVE PHASE SX'S of SCHIZOPHRENIA?
~DELUSIONS
~DISORGANIZED SPEECH
~GROSSLY DISORGANIZED or CATATONIC BEHAVIOR
~HALLUCINATIONS
~NEGATIVE SX's
SCHIZOPHRENIA & MOOD
~SHORT

~DON'T OCCUR DURING ACTIVE PHASE

~DON'T MEET CRITERIA FOR A MOOD EPISODE
Describe SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER?
~2 WEEKS OF ONLY PSYCHOTIC SX'S

~The essential feature of Schizoaffective Disorder is an uninterrupted period of disturbance during which, at some time, there is either a Major Depressive Episode, a Manic Episode, or a Mixed Episode concurrent with symptoms that meet Criterion A for Schizophrenia.
Describe MOOD DISORDER with PSYCHOTIC FEATURES?
PSYCHOTIC SX'S OCCUR ONLY DURING EPISODE OF MOOD DISTURBANCE
What is the diagnositic criteria for SCHIZOPHRENIFORM DISORDER?
~AT LEAST 1 MONTH AND <6 MONTHS

~IMPAIRED SOCIAL OR OCCUP FUNCT

~2/3 OF INDIV DEV SCHIZOPHRENIA OR SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER
BRIEF PSYCHOTIC DISORDER
~AT LEAST 1 DAY, <1 MONTH

~CATATONIC BEHAVIOR
~DELUSIONS
~HALLUCIN DISORGAN SPEECH OR GROSSLY DISORGANIZED
What are the PSY & PSYCHOTROPIC TXT for PANIC DISORDER W/O AGORAPHOBIA?
~INVIVO EXPOS + RESPONSE PREV (FLOODING)

~IMIPRAMINE, OTHER TCA'S, SSRI'S, BENZOS, ANTICONVULSANTS
What is MOWER'S 2 FACTOR THEORY of SPECIFIC PHOBIA?
~RESULT OF AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING

or

~COMBO OF CLASSICAL & OPERANT CONDITIONING
What is the psy TXT of choice for SPECIFIC PHOBIA?
INVIVO-EXPOSURE
PSY AND PSYCHOTROPIC TXT FOR SOCIAL PHOBIA
~EXPOSURE

~ANTIDEPRESSANTS

~PROPRANOL, A BETA BLOCKER (DECREASES ANXIETY SX'S)
What is the ETIOLOGOY of OCD?
~ <LOW SEROTONIN

~OVER ACTIVITY IN CAUDATE NUCLEUS
What is the PSY TXT for OCD?
~EXPOSURE W/ RESPONSE PREVENTION

~THOUGHT STOPPING
What is the PSYCHOTROPIC TXT for OCD?
CLOMIPRAMINE (anti-depress) or an SSRI.
Clomipramine is believed to exert its effects by blocking the reuptake of serotonin from synaptic clefts.
What is ACUTE STRESS DISORDER?
~LASTS 2 DAYS-<MONTH

~ONSET w/i 4 WEEKS of TRAUMA
What are the ASSOCIATED SX's of ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER?
~INFLATED SENSE OF SELF
~LACK OF EMPATHY
~SUPERFICIAL CHARM
What are the CLUSTER A PERSONALITY DISORDERS?
~PARANOID
~SCHIZOID
~SCHIZOTYPAL

CLUSTER A PERSONALITY DISORDERS
What are the CLUSTER B PERSONALITY DISORDERS?
~ANTISOCIAL
~BORDERLINE
~HISTRIONIC
~NARCISSISTIC
CLUSTER C PERSONALITY DISORDER
~AVOIDANT
~DEPENDENT
~OCPD
What is known about the SPEECH (IN CHILDHOOD)in INDIVIDUAL'S with MODERATE MR?
THE CHILD ACTUALLY TALKS & COMMUNICATES WITH OTHERS DURING THE PRESCHOOL YEARS.
What are the sx's of SEDATIVE INTOXICATION?
POOR JUDGEMENT
POOR COORDINATION
MEMORY & ATTENTION DEFICITS
MOOD LABILITY
SLURRED SPEECH
What are the sx's of AMPHETAMINE INTOXICATION?
~ELEVATED BLOOD PRESSURE
~HYPERVIGILANCE
~NAUSEA AND VOMITING
~PSYCHOMOTOR AGITATION
~TACHYCARDIA
What are the sx's of CANNIBIS INTOXICATION?
~ANXIOUS
~POOR JUDGEMENT
~BIG (munchies) APPETITE
~SOCIAL WITHDRAWAL
~TACHYCARDIA
Opioid Intoxication (e.g. Narcotic: OPIUM)
INITIAL EUPHORIA THEN>>>>>>>>>>>

~APATHY
~DROWSINESS
~PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION
What is the DSM-IV TR'S DEFINITION of HALLUCINATIONS?
DSM-IV defines an hallucination as a "sensory perception that has the compelling SENSE OF REALITY of a true perception but that occurs WITHOUT external stimulation of the relevant sensory organs."

THE PERSON MAY OR MAY NOT BE AWARE IT IS NOT REAL.
What is the SCHIZOID PERSONALITY DISORDER?
~Restricted Emotional Experience and Expression
~Seems self-absorbed BUT NOT GRANDIOSE

SCHIZOID'S seem indifferent to opportunities to develop close relationships and to not derive pleasure from personal contacts.
CATEPLEXY TRIGGERED BY...
A STRONG EMOTION (- or +),

eg:

~ANGER
~LAUGHTER
~SURPRISE
Describe SOCIAL PHOBIA.
Social Phobia is characterized by a persistent fear of one or more situations in which a person thinks he or she might be EMBARRASSED as a result of exposure to public scrutiny. This disorder often takes the form of an intense fear of speaking in public or a generalized fear of most SOCIAL SITUATIONS.
Describe SPECIFIC PHOBIA?
specific phobia is a fear of a specific stimulus such as acrophobia (fear of heights), claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces), and fear of animals. When a patient fears humiliation or embarrassment in CERTAIN social situations.
Describe PANIC DISORDER. What does it involve?
Panic disorder involves recurrent panic attacks (characterized by symptoms such as shortness of breath, dizziness, tachycardia, etc.) that occur unexpectedly and that are not associated with a particular stimulus.
Describe Personality Change Due to a General Medical Condition.
A person suffering from a degenerative neurological condition begins to exhibit frequent SHIFTS IN MOOD, unwarranted SUSPICIOUSNESS, and POOR IMPULSE control.
What did Garner and Bemis (1982), the authorities on the COGNITIVE TXT of ANOREXIA and BULIMIA say about these disorders and TXT?
According to Garner and Bemis, an initial step in treatment is to FOSTER DOUBT in the client about his or her assumption that it is worth the time and effort to deny one's appetite in order to stay thin. This is followed by ADDRESSING THE VALIDITY of the anorectic's beliefs regarding the consequences of becoming fat and the conviction that thinness is a primary determinant of self-worth and personal value.
What are the the Hallmarks(s)" of Addiction?
Tolerance & Withdrawal
Lead poisoning, toxoplasma, and toxocara are all possible complications that lead to...
PICA
Describe CIRCUMSTANTIALITY.
Circumstantiality refers to speech that is INDIRECT & DELAYED in reaching the point because of unnecessary, tedious details and PARENTHETICAL remarks.
What is LOOSENING of ASSOCIATIONS?
Loosening of associations involves a complete LACK of CONNECTEDNESS between utterances and the loss of the original point.
What is CONFABULATION?
Confabulation involves a FABRICATION of facts or events to compensate for memory loss.
Describe TANGENTIALITY.
Tangentiality is more like loosening of associations than circumstantiality. It is occurring when the individual constantly interrupts him/herself with digressions to irrelevant topics.
What is DISSOCIATION?
Dissociation refers to a "disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment."
Describe DEPERSONALIZATION DISORDER.
YOU FEEL LIKE AN OUTSIDE OBSERVER OF YOUR MENTAL PROCESSING OR BODY & combined w/ intact reality testing & significant distress or impaired functioning.

"OUTSIDE YOURSELF"

SOMETIME YOUNG ADULTS HAVE MILD ONES
What is ALOGIA?
Alogia is characterized by an IMPOVERISHMENT IN THINKING that is inferred from observing the person's speech and language.
What is APHONIA?
Aphonia is an inability to produce speech sounds that require the use of the larynx and that is NOT due to a lesion in the CNS.
What is ECHOPRAXIA?
Imitating someone's movement and you can't control it or it's semiautomatic.
What is ECHOLALIA?
Pathological, apparently senseless repetition of a word or phrase just spoken by another person.
What is associated with HYPOGLYCEMIA?
Associated with anxiety, confusion, depression, and fatigue, not hyperactivity.
What would one observe in individuals with MULTIPLE SCELROSIS?
PERSONALITY CHANGES

MOOD SWINGS
What are the SX'S THAT sometimes ACCOMPANY HYPOTHYROIDISM?
Delusions and paranoia sometimes accompany this disorder.
Describe an ILLUSION according to DSM-IV.
DSM-IV definition:

"a misperception or misinterpretation of a real external stimulus"

THERE IS AN EXTERNAL STIMULUS

ILLUSION ACCORDING TO DSM-IV
High-risk situations associated with relapse for a variety of addictive and other problem behaviors has shown that the following accounts for nearly three-fourths of relapse incidents:
NEGATIVE EMOTIONAL STATES, INTERPERSONAL STATES, INTERPERSONAL CONFLICTS, & SOCIAL PRESSURE

HIGH RISK SITUATIONS ASSOC W/ RELAPSE IN ADDICTIONS AND PROBLEM BEHAVIORS
RISK FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER
An ACUTE ONSET OF DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS in adolescence or early adulthood is more associated with an increased risk for Bipolar Disorder
What is the underlying feature associated with Agoraphobia?
THE FEAR OF BEING EMBARASSED

THE UNDERLYING FEATURE OF AGORAPHOBIA
AN EXAMPLE OF MAJOR DEPRESSION
-43-year old woman with no physical explanation for her complaints, including: headaches, back pain, fatigue, weight loss, and a lack of concentration.

-Several weeks of symptoms

-She's worried about her physical symptoms and says she's afraid she has cancer but the doctor hasn't found a thing
Developing a treatment plan for a child with Conduct Disorder:
AKA PARENT MANAGEMENT TRAINING, SOCIAL LEARNING FAMILY INTERVENTIONS FOCUS ON:

-COERCIVE PARENT-CHILD INTERACTIONS & ENVIRONMENTAL CONTINGENCIES

-PSYCHOEDUCATION for parents

-REINFORCEMENT OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIORS

-DISCIPLINE FOR UNACCEPTABLE BEHAVIORS

-COMMUNICATION TRAINING
PANIC DISORDER
Perceptual distortions (depersonalization and derealization) are potential symptoms of a panic attack, which is the essential feature of Panic Disorder.
SCHIZOTYPAL PERSONALITY DISORDER
-Has a few friends.

-Uncomfortable around most people.

-They will say they want closer relationships but generally prefer to stay ALONE.
ALZHIEMER'S DISEASE AND DIABETES
The risk for Alzheimer's Dementia is double for those with diabetes and 4 X greater for those with diabetes who receive insulin treatment.

ALZHIEMER'S DISEASE AND DIABETES
ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER DIAGNOSIS
Antisocial Personality Disorder is not diagnosed unless an individual is at least 18 years of age and has a history of antisocial behavior before age 15.
MILD MR
IQ between 50-55 to approximately 70.
MODERATE MR
IQ falls between 35-40 to 50-55.
CONFABULATION
Confabulation refers to the fabrication of events or facts to compensate for memory impairment. It is associated with Amnestic Disorder.
LOOSENING OF ASSOCIATION
Loosening of associations in that the latter involves a loss of the original point of the speech.
ACQUIRED ORGANISMIC DYSFUNCTION
An individual has experienced at least 1 orgasm regardless of the circumstances or means of stimulation but is no longer able to do so
ANXIETY VS. DEPRESSION
Anxiety involves a similar level of negative affect but a higher level of both autonomic arousal and positive affect
Give an example of SOMATOFORM DISORDER NOS.
EXAMPLE: PSEUDOCYESIS (e.g a woman says she's pregnant but pregnancy test show she's not)
3 STAGES OF HIV INFECTION
1. PRIMARY HIV INFECTION

2. CLINICALLY ASYMPTOMATIC

3. SYMPTOMATIC HIV INFECTION
INDIVIDUALS WITH SOMATIZATION DISORDER , ALSO LIKELY TO HAVE
PERSONALITY DISORDER, THEN DEPRESSION, THEN GAD.
CONVERSION DISORDER
"PRIMARY GAIN" AND SECONDARY GAIN ARE GOALS WITH THIS DISORDER.

PRIMARY GAIN IS ACHIEVED THROUGH THE SYMBOLIC EXPRESSION OF AN UNDERLYING CONFLICT IN A PHYSICAL SX SUCH AS PARALYSIS OR BLINDNESS. "I'M SICK" BUT PERSON REALLY HAS AN UNDERLYING CONFLICT.
WHEN COMPARED WITH DEPRESSION, ANXIETY SHARES SOME CHARACTERISTICS INCLUDING:
A SIMILAR LEVEL OF NEGATIVE AFFECT BUT HIGHER LEVEL OF BOTH AUTONOMIC AROUSAL AND POSITIVE AFFECT
WHAT ARE EFFECTS OF MESCALINE USE? OR HALLUCINOGEN INTOXICATION?
CONTINUING TO HAVE HALLUCINATIONS ("FLASHBACKS") SEVERAL MONTHS AFTER ONE STOPS USING MESCALINE
WITHDRAWAL DELERIUM IS ASSOCIATED WITH WHICH SUBSTANCES?
-ETOH

-SEDATIVES

-HYPNOTICS

-ANXIOLYTICS
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN OCD AND OCPD
-BOTH HAVE REPETITIVE RITUALS:

*OCD = DECREASE ANXIETY

*OCPD = PERFECTIONISM

*Also, the diagnosis of OCD (but not Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder) requires the presence of obsessions and/or compulsions
WHICH DISORDER HAS A POORER PROGNOSIS, CHILDHOOD ONSET TYPE OR ADOLESCENT ONSET TYPE CONDUCT DISORDER?
CHILDHOOD ONSET CONDUCT DISORDER bec it can lead to ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER.
WHAT IS THE ESSENTIAL FEATURE OF SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER?
AN UNINTERUPTED PERIOD OF DISTURBANCE, DURING WHICH, AT SOME TIME, THERE IS EITHER A MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODE, A MANIC EPISODE, OR MIXED EPISODE, CONCURRENT WITH SYMPTOMS THAT MEET CRITERION A OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
EFFECTIVE TREATMENTS (short-term & long-term) FOR BULIMIA NERVOSA
-SHORT-TERM EFFECTS:

CBT IS SUPERIOR TO INTERPERSONAL OR BEHAVIOR THERAPY

-LONG-TERM EFFECTS:

CBT + INTERPERSONAL THERAPY BOTH EQUALLY EFFECTIVE
PREVALENCE OF SCHIZOPHRENIA IN POPULATION
1%
PRIMARY GAIN
*Achieved through the symbolic expression of an underlying conflict in a physical symptom such as paralysis or blindness.

*Primary Gain by keeping an internal conflict or need out of awareness.
What are 3 Criterion needed for Bipolar II Disorder?
1. Major Depression
2. NO +5 or Full Mania
3. Hypomania: 4 days or more

Note: ppl with Bipolar II Disorder can live this way and be actually successful.

What are some examples of Hypomania? >self-esteem, <need for sleep, talkative, FOI, buying sprees.
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
SOCIAL OR INTERPERSONAL PROBLEMS CAUSED OR EXCERBATED BY USE.
SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE
EXISTANCE OF PHYSIOLOGICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS CAUSED OR EXCERBATED BY USE.
VASCULAR DEMENTIA
STEPWISE OR THE COURSE IS ERRATIC RATHER THAN PROGRESSIVE