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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CAUSAL pattern of abnormal behavior
What defines Abnormal behavior?
Violates social standards
Social discomfort
How is abnormal behavior classified?
-Categorical: dicrete (no continuum), all criteria or no diagnosis
-Dimensional: on continuum w/ consideration of ind. strength/weaknesses
-Prototypical: (DSM) acknowledges that no one fits all criteria, but models prototypes of each disorder
What are DSM's 5 axes?
I - Particular Clinical syndromes
II - Personality Disorders
III - General medical conditions
IV - Psycho-social/envi. probs
V - Global assessment of functioning
Study of the distribution of disease/disorder
Rate of new cases of a given disorder in a given population in a time period
Active cases in a given population during time period
Lifetime prevalence
Living persons in population that have ever experienced the disorder
Occurrence of 2 or more identified disorders in the same individual
Retrospective Studies
One research method in Psychology
Looks backwards to reconstruct developmental history
Prospective studies
One research method in Psychology
Follows large sample of individuals and observes who does/does not develop disorder
Animal research
One research method in Psychology
Observes animal behavior as an analogue study
-benefit: can create well-controlled environments
Clinical case studies
One research method in Psychology
Offers detailed information on which to base hypothesis, but individual biases/quirks strong
Approaches and Models of Etiology
1. Hormonal abnormalities
2. NT dysfunctions
3. Genetics
4. Temperament
5. Neural Plasticity

1. Freud's models
2. Object-relations
3. Interpersonal perspective
4. Attachment theory

5. Classical Conditioning
6. Instrumental conditioning
7. Generalization

(Cognitive behavioral)
8. CBT perspective

Risk factor
variables correlated with emergence of disorder
Necessary Cause
If disorder Y occurs, then X must have preceded it
-disorders cannot occur without this factor
-very few of these in psychology
Sufficient Cause
If X occurs, then Y will occur
-guarantees the emergence of disorder
-very few of these, eg, stressful life event & PTSD
Contributory cause
If X occurs, then the probability of Y increases
-neither necessary nor sufficient
Distal Causal Factor
Occurs early in life but shows effects later on
Reinforcing Contributory cause
Condition that maintains maladaptive behaviors that are occurring
Get feedback from environment, this can be a stressor
Proximal Causal Factor
Occurs shortly before the disorder develops
Mutual 2 way influences
Individual changes and reacts to his/her environment
-like a genotype-environment correlation
Predisposition to developing disorder
Proximal stressor
Necessary or contributory factors
Diathesis Stress models
1. Additive: total “sum” reached to develop disorder (if low disposition, need high levels of stress to develop)
2. Interactive view: must have diathesis for disorder to occur
Overcoming the odds – MI SPEC
Motivation to achieve/drive
Protected from stress
Effective parenting
Cognitive development
Associated with mood, cognitions, depression
Associated with anxiety
Associated with Schiz
Assoc. with Schizophrenia
What are the genotype-environmental correlations?
-Passive effect: kids of smart parents raised in stimulating environment
-Evocative effect: evoke rxn in others (smiley baby)
-Active effect: niche building, create suitable environments
Emotional/arousal responses & reactions in individuals, and how they differ
-baby-temp thought to be correlated with adult temp
Positive Affect (→extraversion = pos. emo later on)
Activity level (→extraversion = positive emo later)
Frustration (→neuroticism = neg emo later on)
Attentional persistence (→constraint = agreeable)
Irritability (→neuroticism = neg emo later on)
Neural Plasticity
Ability of brain to make changes in organization and functioning of the brain on a neurological level
Freud's Model of Mental Functioning
Dimensions of personality:
Id: libido and death drive, pleasure principle, primary process thinking, “I can do that!”
Ego: mediator between the two, secondary thinking, in touch with reality, executive branch
Superego: internalization of parental figures, cause of individual’s drive to please others

Anxiety: MR.N
Reality anxiety: fear of reality
Neurotic anxiety: intra-psychic conflict
Moral Anxiety: pt with punitive SuperEgo

Defense Mechanisms: coping mechanism for anxiety
-Repression: suppressing info from cs
-Reaction formation: trying to deny emotions and overcompensate by exhibiting opposite behaviors
-Displacement: of emotion
-Projection: take feelings and attribute to someone else so there is less emotional responsibility
Object Relations Rehotry
Object (symbolic of a person) are internalized and interactions of self and other objects give us sense of who we are
-engages introjection
Interpersonal Theory
Similarities to behavioral perspective
-doesn’t include intra-psychic conflict
-observe socio-cultural patterns (as part of learning)
Process where child symbolically internalized people intro own personality
Attachment Theory
-early childhood attachment relationships lay down framework for later functioning
Classical Conditioning
-UCS and CS both eventually trigger UCR
-extinction does not mean unlearning
-see spontaneous recovery
Instrumental Condiotioning
-has element of reinforcement
-individual learns to act in a certain manner to achieve desirable goal/avoid undesirable
inability to distinguish between phobias
Underlying representation of the world that guides information processing, shaped by personal biases
Obervational Learning
learn through looking, not experiencing it directly
Attribution theory
Assign cause to things that happen
-pts with depression = more negative self attributions; healthy people = self-serving biases
Early Deprivation/trauma
Psycho-social causal factors of Mental Disorder
-affects basic trust skills/schema/acquiring skills
-separation makes people prone to deprivation
-abuse/neglect can lead to disorganized attachment (laughing while whimpering)
Inadequate parenting
Psycho-social causal factors of Mental Disorder
-if parents have psychopathologies, see inability to devote attention to kids, exhibit insecure attachment, increased life stress
What are differences in parenting styles?
When goes wrong, Psycho-social causal factor
-Authoritative: friendly, competent, securely attached
-Authoritarian: conflicted, irritable, moody, aggr.
-Permissive/Indulgent: spoiled, selfish, impatient, inconsiderate, demanding
-Neglectful/Uninvolved: moody, low self-esteem, conduct problems
Marital Discord
In comparison, these kids have less edu, lower incomes & life satisfaction, welfare, get divorced
-correlation unclear
-Amato’s studies show that effects are minimal
Maladaptive peer relationships
Psychosocial causal factor
Evidences reinforcing contributory factors, feedback
-withdrawn kids may become more withdrawn
Bleuler, Swiss shrink terms it “split mind” – mind is divorced from consensual reality
Exhibit Psychosis: loss of contact with reality
1% lifetime prevalence
Positive symptoms
-easier to treat with medication
Negative symptoms
-emotional flattening
-poverty of speech
-harder to treat
Sensory experiences in absence of external stimulus
-auditory most common; Broca’s area is activated
Disturbances in content of thought
-Delusions of Reference: find sig. in things
-Thought insertion: believe thoughts are inserted
-Thought broadcasting: believe others can read their thoughts
-Thought withdrawal: believe thoughts are being taken away from them
Use Neologisms: made up words
-word salad
-loose associations made, cognitive slippage, derailment
Undifferentiated type
Wastebasket category
-when pt doesn’t fit into other categories
-common in people “breaking down”
-rapidly changing symptoms (might be transitional state)
-coherent, persecutory delusions
-delusions of grandeur
-auditory hallucinations
-higher adaptive, coping skills (recover most easily)
-no evidence of disorganized speech
alternates between stuporous and excitement
-Exhibits echopraxia: imitation of gesture
-exhibits echolalia: imitation of speech
Delusional disorder
-believes delusions, sometimes act on them
-pt exhibits NO other symptoms
Residual schizophrenia
-pt recovering from schizophrenia, no active symptoms
comorbidity w/ schizophrenia and mood disorder
-schiz-like symptoms, but less than 6 mo.
Shared psychotic disorder
-delusion develops in the context of a close relationship
Brief psychotic disorder
-disorganized/catatonic behavior for less than 1 mo.
Evidence for Genetic Causal Factors of schizophrenia
-prevalence for 1st degree relative is 10%, 2nd is 3%
-Mono twins show 28% concordance, dizy show 6%
-16.6% of children of schiz mother develop it
-Wahlberg study: showed that high Communication deviance in families at risk developed schiz; see gene-environment interaction
-while family concordance exits, it’s not 100% = schiz is not purely genetic
Neurodevelopmental factors in Schizophrenia
-Dutch Hunger winter
-Flu outbreak in Finland 1957
-Complicated deliveries
-Walker’s home videos: ppl who develop schiz have decreased facial/emo expr & motor skills as children
-Brain areas are abnormal:
-enlarged ventricles
-decreased brain volume
-frontal lobe dysfunction (=neg symp & attn deficit?)
-reduced thalamus
-abnormalities in temporal lobe, incl: hippocampus, amygdala (memory & emotions)
NT abnormalities in Schizophrenia
Dopamine: see excess amounts, due to excess production or too many dopamine receptors?
-Glutamate: dopamine receptors inhibit release of glutamate, which is excitatory NT. Less glutamate = less glutamate receptors, which can lead to cell death. Pts with schiz have less glutamate.
Neurocognitive deficits
-eye tracking test: 54-86% of pts with schiz couldn’t
-50% of 1st degree relatives also couldn’t track
-would indicate that there is a genetic vulnerability
-interestingly, controls administered glutamate inhibitors also showed an inability to track
Psychosocial/Cultural aspects
-Expressed emotion: feelings of hostility, criticism… is especially stressful to pts with schiz, and may trigger cortisol release, which signals dopamine
-lower SES = higher levels of schizophrenia
-sociogenic (breeder) hypothesis
-social drift hypothesis
Sociogenic (breeder) hypothesis
diathesis-stress model
-poverty = extreme stressor, so predisposed @ high risk
Social Drift hypothesis
-feedback & mutual influence
-inability to function makes performance worse, and this cycles until lose job/daily routine/etc.
Treament & Clincal outcome in Schizophrenia
Antipsychotics: have two kinds, 1) conventional neuroleptics and 2) novel antipsychotics (better, but rel. to weight gain and extrapyramidal side effects)
-Psycho-social approaches (rapport, rel involved):
-Case-management: make sure pt has job, house, etc.
-Social Skills training: develop interpersonal skills
-CBT: examine evidence for delusions
-Family therapy: try to create low CD/EE environment
Unconditional positive regard for pt during session
Mood disorder (DSM-IV)
Intense, persistent disturbances in mood shown to be mal-adaptive
-DSM-IV: 5 or more in 2 wks, with 1 of those being depressed mood/loss of interest
-depressed most of the day
-weight gain/loss
-diminished intrest
-psychomotor agitation/retardation
-feelings of worthlessness/guilt
-diminished ability to concentrate
-recurrent thoughts of death
-Lifetime prevalence for uni 13% males, 21% females
-lifetime prevalence for bipolar 0.4-1.6%
Subtypes of Major Depression
-MD episode with psychotic: mood congruent delusions and hallucinations, feelings of worthlessness/guilt; distinguished from schizoaffective b/c hallucinations are mood congruent
-MD episode with melancholic: (need 3)
-early morning awakening
-depression is worse in the morning
-loss of appetite
-excessive guilt
-pscyho-motor agitative
-qualitatively different sadness (punitive, despair)

-MD episode with atypical: (need 2)
-mood reactivity (can brighten, but not to normal)
-leaden paralysis (body is heavy)
-weight gain/increase in appetite
-pronounced sensitivity to interpersonal rejection
-Chronic: lasts more than 2 years
-Seasonal: recurrent during (winter) season
-Dysthymia: milder but longer-lasting symptoms of depression
Beck's Cognitive Model
-Early experience
-Formation of dysfunctional beliefs
-Critical incidence (stressors)
-Negative beliefs/schemas activate
-Negative automatic response cascades
-Symptoms of depression (keep schemas active)
Negative Cognitive Triad
-part of Beck’s model, about Self, Future, and Others
-all or none reasoning
-selective abstraction: only take negative data
-arbitrary inference: seek negative data to support idea despite contrary evidence
Helplessness Theory
-developed from animal studies
-when animals/humans are unable to control their environment, learn helplessness
-humans learn helplessness with attributional style, too
-internal/external: attribute blame to self/others
-global/specific: belief in temporary state/not
-stable/unstable: belief in ability for things to change
Hopelessness Theory
-similar to helplessness theory but includes expectancy of hopelessness
-in attributional criteria, disregards internal/external in favor of hopeless expectancy
1. pessimistic attributions
2. life stressor
3. sureness that other negative events will occur
Suicidal Ambivalence
-communication of suicidal intent, exhibits a desire to communicate with others, perhaps a drastic cry for help
-30-40% make implicit communication
-40% make explicit communication
Warning Signs of Suicide
-lack of interest
-change in mood
-marked self-esteem
-deteriorating hygiene
-interpersonal problems (also acts as proximal stressor)
Biological Factors in unipolar depression
-genetic contribution: mono zygotic twins are 2x likely to have depression than dizygotic (30-40% variance)
-non-shared environmental factors show more variance than shared environmental factors
-5-HTT gene combo include 1 or 2 short alleles correlated with higher rates of depression
-Dysregulated thyroid functioning: show sim symptoms
-low levels of activity in left pre-frontal cortex
-Dexamethasone: usually suppresses cortisol, but isn’t functioning, so depressed pts have extra-high levels of cortisol, indicating that HPA is dysfunctional
Suicide - prevalance rates
-among top 10 leading causes death in West
-attempts most common 18-24, completed in elderly over 65
-rates for younger attempts increasing
-40-60% completed suicided performed by people in recovery phase
-1% risk for pts with depression, 15% for pts with chronic depression
-15% risk in recurrent mood disorders, 10% in schizophrenia, 1% general
-10% of children/adolescents have attempted
-2nd leading cause of death in college students
-3rd leading cause of death in young
Risk Factors for Suicide
-drug/alcohol abuse
-sensitivity to lack of control
-conduct disorder
-exposure to media
-academic/ID pressures
Bipolar disorder
-Distinguished from unipolar depression by presence of manic/hypomanic symptoms that show themselves for at least 1 week
-medications for depression can send manic-depressive sufferers into manic state; need for correct diagnosis!
Cyclothymic disorder
-cycles through hypomanic and depressed states, but less severe than bipolar disorder
-lasts 2 years
-elations, expansiveness, grandiosity, eupohira, irritable
-flight of ideas, goal-directed behavior for foolish endeavors
-need to have 1 week of manic state for bipolar disorder
Subtypes of bipolar
-Bipolar I: 1 full on manic episode and depression
-Bipolar II: hypomanic and depression
-Bipolar with seasonal patterns
Biological Causal for Bipolar
-Genetic: greater genetic contribution than in unipolar
-8-9% of 1st degree relative concordance, gen 1%
-mono have 60% concordance, di have 12%
-estimated that genes account for 80-90% variance
-NTs: norep, serotonin, and dopamine dysfunctions
-not well-understood
-think there are abnormalities in the way ions are transported across neural membrane
-perhaps that’s why lithium is effective, it works like sodium to pass down neural impulses down axon
-Hormonal: cortisol, disturbances in bio rhythm?
-Neuro: shifting patterns of blood flow to the left and right prefrontal cortex
Psychosocial causal factors of bipolar
-stressful life events
-personality variables (high self-standards, neuroticism)
-psychodynamic think manic = coping mech for depr