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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
psychological disorder
a psychological disfunction within an individual that is associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or cultural expected
DSM-IV-TR definition of a psychological disorder
behavioral, emotional, or cognitive disfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with personal distress and impairment in functioning
prototype of disorder
typical profile, when most or all of the symptoms experts agree are part of the disorder are present
clinical and counseling psychologists
receive PhD or similar degree, 5 years of grad-level study that prepares them to conduct research into causes and treatment of psychological disorders and assess, diagnose, and treat them
earn an MD in medical school, specialize in psychiatry during 3-4 years of residency training, investigate nature and (bio) causes of disorders, emphasize drug/bio treatments
psychiatric social worker
earn a master's degree in social work, develop expertise on how psych. disorder affected by social and family situation of individual, treat disorders (focus on assoc. family probs)
scientist-practitioner model
1) keep up with latest scientific developments in field, use most current diagnostic/treatment procedures
2) evaluate their own assessments and treatment procedures to see if they work
3) might conduct research that produces new info about disorders or their treatment
presenting problem
why the person sought treatment
clinical description
unique combo of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that make up a specific disorder
how many people in the population as a whole have the disorder
how many new cases occur during a specific period of time (ie. a year)
individual pattern of a disorder
anticipated course of a disorder
Supernatural model of abnormal behavior
belief that agents (eg. divinities, demons, spirits, magnetic fields, etc.) outside the body and environment influence behavior, thinking, and emotions.
mass hysteria
large scale outbreak of bizzare behavior
emotional contagion
experience of an emotion seems to spread to those around us
-father of modern medicine
1) coauthored Hippocratic Corpus--> suggested that psych disorders could be treated like other diseases, may have bio/genetic causes
2) considered brain to be seat of wisdom, CSness, and emotion
3) recognized importance of psych and interpersonal contributions to psychopathology
-Roman physician
-promoted humoral theory of disorders (blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm)
-extended work of Hippocrates into influential school of thought
general paresis
another name for behavioral and cognitive symptoms of syphilis
-consistent presentation, course that leads to death
-hallucinations/delusions (similar to psychosis)
-cure discovered via soldier with malaria--led to injection with malaria and later penicillin
-first time psych symptoms traced to curable biological cause
John Grey
-superintendent of Utica State Hospital in NY
-believed insanity always due to physical causes, so emphasis on diet, rest and proper room temp/ventilation
-improved conditions in hospitals
-created rotary fan
Manfred Sakel
Viennese physician
-used higher and higher doses of insulin in psychotic patients in an attempt to calm them and stimulate appetite
-eventually led to convulsions and coma
-some regained mental health
-abandoned as dangerous
class of sedating drugs
-used at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries to treat anxiety/other psych disorders
-widely prescribed by 1920s
-side effects found to be significant and overall effect=modest, so abandoned
-important because even though drug therapies can appear to be effective initially, cost may outweigh benefit to patient
Emil Kraepelin
influential in advocating major ideas of psychological tradition, but not very involved in treatment
-one of the first to distinguish between different psych disorders and posit diff age of onset, time course, and presenting symptoms for diff disorders
believed two causes of maladaptive behavior were social/cultural influences on a person's life, and the learning that took place in that environment
-best treatment=rational discussion, precursor to psychosocial approach
Moral therapy
-psychosocial approach to mental disorders
-treat institutionalized patients as normally as possible in setting that encourages social interaction
-relationships nurtured
-individual attention, emphasis on reward and punishment for good and bad behavior
-behavior modeled by staff
Philippe Pinel
French psychiatrist
-originator of moral therapy
- former patient, Pussin, persuaded Pinel to make reforms to Parisian hospital
Dorothea Dix
former schoolteacher, worked firsthand in mental instititutions
-improved standards of care for the insane
-campaigned for more humane care and more widespread availability of care
-her work led to increase in the number of mental patients, transition from moral therapy to custodial care because hospitals overcrowded
decline of moral therapy, humane treatment
1) hospitals became overcrowded, understaffed, led to shift from moral therapy to custodial care
2) decision in mid 1800s made that mental illness caused by brain pathology and was therefore incurable
Anton Mesmer
suggested to patients that problem due to undetectable fluid found in all living orgs (animal magnetism)
-basically used strong suggestion to induce trancelike states in people
-opposed by medical establishment as charlatan, animal magnetism disproven by Ben Franklin's double-blind study
Jean Charcot
-head of hospital in Paris
-distinguished neurologist
-showed that hypnosis/mesmerism effective with several different kinds of disorders
-Freud studied under him
Josef Breuer
asked patients to describe problems/conflicts/fears in detail while under hypnosis
-led to discovery of unconscious mind and its influence on psych disorders as well as discovery of catharsis
rise of psychoanalysis
-work of Breuer led to discovery of UCS mind and catharsis
-case study of Anna O led Freud to expand observations into psychoanalytic model:
1) structure of mind (id, ego, superego)
2) defense mechanisms
3) stages of psychosexual development
Adolph Meyer
emphasized equal contributions of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors
-only currently valid model
-combines info from all areas of psychopathology with understanding of different developmental periods