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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
symptoms
thoughts feelings and behaviors that indicate a mental disorder
syndrome
a group of symptoms that tend to co-occur and are assumed to have a common etiology
3 ways of defining abnormal behavior
personal distress, statistical deviance, social non-conformity
harmful dysfunction
(Wakefield) a condition is a mental disorder only if 1)it results from failure of some internal mechanism to function properly, 2) it causes harm to the person as judged by standards of their culture
DSM I-V mental disorder definition inclusion criteria
1)present distress
2)disability in functioning
3)increased risk of death, disability, or loss of freedom
DSM I-V mental disorder definition exclusion criteria
1)culturally expectable response
2)deviant behavior
3)societal conflicts
epidemiology
study of the frequency and distribution of disorders within a population
incidence
the number of new cases that occur in a population within a certain time period
prevalence
the total number of active cases (old and new) present in the pop. at a certain time
lifetime prevalence
the number of people who have had the disorder at some point in their lives
4 paradigms
cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological
holism
the whole is more than the sum of its parts
reductionism
the whole=the sum of its parts
equifinality
different causes for same disorder
multifinality
same cause leads to different outcomes
3 traits of the DSM-IV
categorical, multiaxial, descriptions rather than causes
axis 1
clinical disorders (episodic; psychological turmoil)
axis 2
personality disorders and mental retardation (stable, longstanding problems)
axis 3
general medical conditions
axis 4
psychosocial and environmental problems
axis 5
GAF score
reliability
consistency of measurements
validity
meaning or importance of a classification system
3 types of validity
etiological, concurrent, predictive
etiological validity
concerned with the specific factors that are regularly and perhaps uniquely associated with a particular disorder
concurrent validity
concerned with the association between disorder and other symptoms, life circumstances, and test performance
predictive validity
concerned with the accuracy of predicting further treatment and treatment outcomes
unipolar mood disorder
person experiences only depression
bipolar mood disorder
episodes of mania and sometimes depression too
types of unipolar mood disorder
mdd, dysthymia
types of bipolar mood disorder
bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymia
anhedonia
loss of interest or pleasure
Coyne study
students who spoke to depressed patients on the phone were more rejecting of them afterwards
people who are __ or __ are most likely to be depressed
separated or divorced
depression is higher in those who are never __ than in those who are
married
bipolar I
at least one manic episode; could or could not have a depressive episode too
reliability
consistency of measurements
validity
meaning or importance of a classification system
3 types of validity
etiological, concurrent, predictive
etiological validity
concerned with the specific factors that are regularly and perhaps uniquely associated with a particular disorder
concurrent validity
concerned with the association between disorder and other symptoms, life circumstances, and test performance
predictive validity
concerned with the accuracy of predicting further treatment and treatment outcomes
unipolar mood disorder
person experiences only depression
bipolar mood disorder
episodes of mania and sometimes depression too
types of unipolar mood disorder
mdd, dysthymia
types of bipolar mood disorder
bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymia
anhedonia
loss of interest or pleasure
Coyne study
students who spoke to depressed patients on the phone were more rejecting of them afterwards
people who are __ or __ are most likely to be depressed
separated or divorced
depression is higher in those who are never __ than in those who are
married
bipolar I
at least one manic episode; could or could not have a depressive episode too
reliability
consistency of measurements
validity
meaning or importance of a classification system
3 types of validity
etiological, concurrent, predictive
etiological validity
concerned with the specific factors that are regularly and perhaps uniquely associated with a particular disorder
concurrent validity
concerned with the association between disorder and other symptoms, life circumstances, and test performance
predictive validity
concerned with the accuracy of predicting further treatment and treatment outcomes
unipolar mood disorder
person experiences only depression
bipolar mood disorder
episodes of mania and sometimes depression too
types of unipolar mood disorder
mdd, dysthymia
types of bipolar mood disorder
bipolar I, bipolar II, cyclothymia
anhedonia
loss of interest or pleasure
Coyne study
students who spoke to depressed patients on the phone were more rejecting of them afterwards
people who are __ or __ are most likely to be depressed
separated or divorced
depression is higher in those who are never __ than in those who are
married
bipolar I
at least one manic episode; could or could not have a depressive episode too
bipolar II
at least one hypmanic episode and at least one major depressive episode
mood disorders are more common among __ than __
young adults than the elderly
mdd avg. age of onset for males and females
males=23 and females=25
bipolar disorder avg. age of onset
18-22
childhood depression gender differences
pre-puberty-no diff or boys slightly higher; by 15, girls double the rate of boys just as in adults
__ are more common than any other form of mental disorder
anxiety disorders
what do anxiety and depression have in common? (2)
1)both defined in terms of negative emotional experience
2)both triggered by stressful experiences
3 different types of panic attacks
1)situationally bound 2)unexpected 3)situationally predisposed
panic disorder
recurrent, unexpected panic attacks followed by at least 1 month of persistent concern about having another attack
catastrophic misinterpretation
a person misinterprets bodily sensations (eg rapid heart rate) associated with anxiety as a serious threat, which leads to increased awareness of biological sensations which leads them to misinterpret these sensations as catastrophic events
etiology of panic disorder (one theory)
neurotransmitters are hyperactive
DSM I-V 5 types of phobia
animal, natural environment, blood/injury, situational, other
2 kinds of judgment biases in people with social phobia
1)exaggerated estimates of the occurence of negative events 2)exaggerated estimates of the cost of negative events
operant conditioning
learn behavior through reward or punishment
classical conditioning
learning through association
cohort effect
distinguish age groups from one another
Caspi study
both stress and gene must be present for depression
TDCRP findings
-medication, cognitive, and interpersonal therapy were effective
drug treatment led to a more rapid improvement initially, but eventually all three methods were equally effective
-also, type of treatment was independent of type of improvement
anxious apprehension (3 components)
MALADAPTIVE ANXIETY
1)high levels of diffuse negative emotion 2)a sense of uncontrollability 3)a shift in attention to a primary self-focus or a state of self-preoccupation
__ are more common than any other form of mental disorder
anxiety disorders
what do anxiety and depression have in common? (2)
1)both defined in terms of negative emotional experience
2)both triggered by stressful experiences
3 different types of panic attacks
1)situationally bound 2)unexpected 3)situationally predisposed
panic disorder
recurrent, unexpected panic attacks followed by at least 1 month of persistent concern about having another attack
catastrophic misinterpretation
a person misinterprets bodily sensations (eg rapid heart rate) associated with anxiety as a serious threat, which leads to increased awareness of biological sensations which leads them to misinterpret these sensations as catastrophic events
etiology of panic disorder (one theory)
neurotransmitters are hyperactive
DSM I-V 5 types of phobia
animal, natural environment, blood/injury, situational, other
2 kinds of judgment biases in people with social phobia
1)exaggerated estimates of the occurence of negative events 2)exaggerated estimates of the cost of negative events
operant conditioning
learn behavior through reward or punishment
classical conditioning
learning through association
cohort effect
distinguish age groups from one another
Caspi study
both stress and gene must be present for depression
TDCRP findings
-medication, cognitive, and interpersonal therapy were effective
drug treatment led to a more rapid improvement initially, but eventually all three methods were equally effective
-also, type of treatment was independent of type of improvement
anxious apprehension (3 components)
MALADAPTIVE ANXIETY
1)high levels of diffuse negative emotion 2)a sense of uncontrollability 3)a shift in attention to a primary self-focus or a state of self-preoccupation