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11 Cards in this Set

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Define Abnormal Psychology/Psychopathology
The subfield of psychology devoted to the study of mental disorders
What are the 6 Core Concepts?
1.The importance of context in defining and understanding abnormality
2.The continuum between normal and abnormal behavior
3.Cultural and historical relativism in defining and classifying abnormality
4.The advantages and limitations of diagnosis
•Reliability
•Validity
5.The principle of multiple causality
•Precipitating (triggering) cause
•Predisposing (underlying) cause
6.The connection between mind and body
Define Animism
The belief in the existence and power of a spirit world. A person afflicted with a mental disturbance has been possessed by a spirit, usually an evil one.
Define Trephination

Define Exorcism
Trephination: cutting an opening in the skull to release the evil spirit. This worked probably because pressure in the brain was alleviated and is a practice that is still done today.

Exorcism: a ritual of casting out the evil spirit by religious authorities.
What is Psychodynamic perspective on psychopathology & its approach to treatment?
•Abnormal behavior (any behavior for that matter) is a result of earlier events
•Belief in the unconscious as source of conflict that leads to abnormal behavior
•Sigmund Freud—mind is divided into 3 parts: id, superego, and ego. There need to be proper balance among them
•More modern psychodynamic theories and perspectives focus on ways in which early experience affect later functioning as well as focusing on unconscious conflict.

Treatment—revealing and resolving internal conflicts
What is Behavioral perspective on psychopathology & its approach to treatment?
•Emphasizes overt and measurable behavior
•Behavior is learned
•Emotions can be learned
•Treatments—address unhealthy behaviors directly
What is Cognitive perspective on psychopathology & its approach to treatment?
•Focuses on thoughts and information processing
•Explains differences in how people act and feel by looking at differences in how people think
•Treatment—change maladaptive, unhealthy ways of thinking
What is Biological perspective on psychopathology & its approach to treatment?
Genetics
•Most disorders are polygenic (caused by many genes)
•Twin studies, Family studies, Adoption studies

Neuroscience
•Central Nervous System--Different parts of the brain are associated with different functions
•Problems can arise with problems in brain structures or with neurochemical activity

Treatments:
Psychosurgery—go into the nervous system and try to fix something surgerically (i.e. epilepsy)
Electroconvulsive therapy—electric shocks are administered to the brain
Pharmacological treatment (drugs)
Explain how disorders are classified according to the Multiaxial System of the DSM (5 axis)
Axis I—All clinical disorders except for those in Axis II
Axis II—personality disorders and mental retardation
•Thought of as more pervasive and characteristics of a person as opposed to an episodic disorder as those in Axis I.
•These disorders are inherently more chronic
Axis III—medical conditions and physical disorders
•Important because medical conditions can precipitate psychological problems
Axis IV—psychosocial and environmental factors
•i.e. supportive environment is important for avoiding relapse
Axis V—Global Assessment of Functioning
•A set scale that a patient is rated on to see how well at functioning overall (i.e. basic self-care, ability to work, etc.)
What are some advantages of the DSM?
Decent reliability and validity –what one clinician who conclude would more likely be a similar conclusion to another clinician
Common language—unifies the field in that all know what is being discussed when referenced
Advances research
What are some limitations of the DSM?
Some reliability/validity problems
Labeling issue
Number of diagnoses—distinction or invention?