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219 Cards in this Set

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This states you are born with a genetic vulnerability to developing certain psycolgical disorders; and when paired with a stresser it equals a psychopathology
Diathesis-stress model
Vulnerability + stressor =
Psychopathology
This takes the diathesis stress model another step; Genetic vulnerability increases probability of experiencing a stressor
Reciprocal gene-environment model
These receive, moves and processes information
Neurons
how infomation travels inside the neuron; happens by electrical charge
Action potential
EEG measures this
Action potential
Neg (no info) ----> Pos (info) ---> Neg (no info)
Action potential
At the end of the action potential, info goes to the .....
Terminal buttons
Infomation traveling from one neuron to the next
Synaptic transmission
In synaptic transmission, info goes from the _____ to the _____
Terminal button
Dendrite
Way the informaiton travels; chemical messengers
Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters are stored in _____ until they are dumped in teh synaspe
Vesicles
In synapse, the neurotransmitters then _____
Find their receptor site/ shape in the next neuron's denrite
If enough of the receptor sites are filled, then an _____ will occur on the next neuron
Action potential
Neurotransmitters:
Moderates our mood; helps our motivation; moderates bx
Serotonin
Neurotransmitters:
Anxiety disorders; reduces anxiety/fear; reduces all emotion; inhibites bx (impulsivness is a problem with the level of this)
GABA
Neurotransmitters:
Panic responces; increase HR, RR and B/P; too much = panic attack
Norepinephine
Neurotransmitters:
Acts like a master switch; allows other neurotransmitters to do their job; schizph (too much); Parkins (too little)
Dopamine
Brain structure:
Primitive; vital body function; keeps us alive; sleep cycle
Brain stem
Brain structure:
Structure that sits on top of brain stem; controls emotion and motivation
Limbic system
Limbic system:
Feeding, flighting, fleeing, sex
Hypothalamus
Limbic system:
Powerful emotion like fear and aggression; big responces; emotional memories
Amygdala
Limbic system:
Learning and memeory; can shrink if someone has experienced trauma
Hippocampus
Where higher thinking takes place; think logically; memory is stored here
Cerebral cortex
Cerebral cortex:
Personality is stored here; helps to inhibit inappropriate bx; impulse control disorders
Frontal lobe
Cerebral cortex:
Behind temple; process auditory info
Temproal lobe
Cerebral cortex:
On top; sensory info
Perietal lobe
Cerebral cortex:
Visual information
Occipital lobe
Peripheral neuvous system:
Nerves that control movement
Somatic nervous system
Peripheral neuvous system:
Automatic function; HR; RR; digestion...
Automatic nervous system
Automatic nervous system:
Panic responces, helps us respond to dangerous situations; flight or fight
Sympathetic nervous system
Automatic nervous system:
Slows us down to calm state; decrease HR, RR; bring back to normal state
Parasympathetic system
What describes the bx, emotional or cognitive dysfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with personal distress
DSM-IV-TR
Scientific study of psychological disorders
Psychopathology
Original complain reported by the client to teh therapist
Presenting problem
Details of the combonation of bx, thoughts and feelings that make up a particular disorder
Clinical description
Number of people with a disorder in the total pop at any given time
Prevalence
Number of new cases of a disorder appearing during a specific time period
Incidence
Pattern of development and change of a disorder over time
Source
Predicted future development of a disorder
Prognosis
Cause or source or a disorder
Etiology
Treatment practices that focus on social and cultural factors and on psychological influences; cognitive, bx and interpersonal methods
Psychosocial treatment
Psychoanalytic assessment and therapy which emphasizes exploration of, and insight into, unconscious processes and conflicts; Freud
Psychoanalysis
Explanation of human bx including dysfunction; principles of learning and adapation
Behaviorism
Type of thinking: conscience
Driven by: moral principles
Superego
Type of thinking: Logical/ rational
Driven by: Reality principle
Mediator
Ego
Type of thinking: Illogical, emotional and irrational
Driven by: Pleasure principle
Id
Part fo the psychic makeup that is outside the awareness of person
Unconscious
Rapid or sudden release of emotional tension
Catharsis
Struggles b/w id, ego and superego
Intrapsychic conflicts
Common patterns of behavior, often adaptive coping styles when they occur in moderation, observed in responce to particular situation; thoughts to be unconscious processes originating in the ego; used so ego can continue coordinating function
Defense mechanisms
The sequence of phases a person passes through during development; each stage known for location of body where id gratificaiton is maximal at that time; Freud
Psychosexual stages of development
Birth to 2 years
Oral stage
2 to 5 year; potty raining; too much = anally fixated; too little = messy
Anal stage
5- 10 years; genitals; little boys want to have sex with mom and girls with dad
Phallic stage
Little boys wanting their mothers
Oedipal complex
boys think that dad will cut off his penis; this is "why" males have stronger superegos; will resove compled and be dad's buddy
Castration anxiety
Girls complex for lusting for dad; then becomes mom's friend
Electra complex
WHen little girls realize that they don't have a penis; only way to feel whole again is to have a baby
Penis envy
11-13 years; just kinda there
Latency stage
teen years to adulthood; can learn to have sexual pleasure and emotional love
Genital stage
Theory that emphysizes the role of the ego in development and attributes psychological disorders to failure of the ego to manage impulses and internal conflicts
Ego psychology
Modern development- study of how children incorporate the memories and values of poeple who are close and important to them
Object relations
Explanation of human behavior, including dysfunctioin, based on principles or learning and adaptation derived from experimental psychology
Behavior model
Acceptance by the counselor of the client's feeling and actions without judgment or condemnation
Unconditional positive regard
Classical conditioning
Pavlov
Operant conditining; reinforcer/ punisher
Skinner
Learned helplessness; puppy in box; maybe in depression people just give up
Seiigman
Way we explain/ make sense of a bx; control vs. no control (learned helplessness)
Attributions
These are based on shemas and affect our behavior
Thoughts
Emotional influences are made up of...
Cognitions
Physiologic
Behaviors
Behavioral therapy technique to diminish excessive fears, involving gradual exposure to the feared stimulus paired with a positive coping experience, usually relaxation
Systematic desensitization
Multidimensional integrative approach:
Like conditioning
Behavioral
Multidimensional integrative approach:
Like increased HR and RR
BIological
Multidimensional integrative approach:
anxiety and fear
Emotional
Multidimensional integrative approach:
Rejection? Support?
Social
Multidimensional integrative approach:
More or less reactive to a given situation
Developmental
This controls the muscles, so damange in this area might make it difficult for us to engage in any voluntary movement, including talking
Somatic nervous system
The primary duties of the ANS are to regulate the _____ and the _____
Cardiovascular and endocrine
Neuotransmitter currents or neural pathways in the brain
Brain currents
Action by whcih a neurotransmitter is drawn back into the discharging neuron after being released in the synaptic cleft
Reuptake
Chemical substance that effictively increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by imitating its effects
Agonist
Chemical substance that decreases or blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter
Antagonist
Chemical substance that produces effects opposite those of a particular neurotransmitter
Inverse agonist
This neurotransmitter is involved in info process, cooridination, eating, sex, aggreassion; regulates our bx, moods and thought processes
Serotonin
This reduces postsynaptic activitity which in turn inhibits a variety of bx and emotions; anxiety
GABA
Active in CNS and peripheral nervous system; HR, BP, RR; panic attacks and mood disorders
Norepinephrine
Generalized function is to activate other neuotransmitters; balances serotonin;
Dopomine
Seligman's theory that people become anxious and depressed when they amke an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives
Learned helplessness
Certain associations can be larned more readily than others because ability has been adaptive for evolution;
Prepared learning
Condition of memory in which a person cannot recall past events though he/she acts in response to them
Implicit memory
Pattern of action elicited by an external event and a feeling state, accompained by a characteristic physiological response; action tendency; tendency to behave in a certain way
Emotion
Enduring period of emotionality
mood
Conscious, subjective aspect of an emotion that accompanies an action at a given time; momentary emotional tone that accompanies what we say or do
Affect
Systematic evaluations and measurements of psychological, biological and social factors in a person presenting with a possible psychological disorder
Clinical assessment
Process of determining wether a presenting problem meets the established criteria for a specific psychological disorder
diagnosis
Why we do assessments: (6)
1. How are they doing right now
2. Normal vs. abnormal
3. Treatment working?
4. Steps to follow
5. What do they have
6. Suicidal? Homosidal?
1. Baseline function
2. Comparison to other people
3. Evaluation of treatment
4. Planning and guiding therapy
5. Diagnosis
6. Predict behavior
Degree to whcih a measurement is consistent
Reliability
Degree to which a technique acually measures what it says it is going to measure
Validity
Where the MSE takes place; detailed hx is gathered; presenting problem is discussed.
Clinical interview
MSE looks at (5) things:
1. looking for something that stands out
2. Speech process? Looseness of association?
3. Do these match?
4. Average? Bright? can they talk in abstracts and metaphors?
5. A & O x 3
1. Appearance and bx
2. Though process
3. Mood and affect
4. Intellectual functioning
5. Sensorium
Process of establishing specific norms and requirements for a measurement technique to ensure consistency
Standarization
Measuring, observing and systematicall evaluating the client's thoughts, feelings and behavior in teh actual problem situation
Behavioral assessment
This involves indentifying specific bx that are observable and measureable (operational definitions)
Formal observation
Go and observe client where problem bx is taking place
Direct observation
Used as assessment tools before treatment and then periodically during treatment to assess changes; can be compared with others
CHecklists and rating scales
Psychoanalytically based measures that present ambiguous stimuli to clenit on teh assumption that their responses will reveal their uncoscious conflicts; lack high reliability and validity
Projective Tests
Projective test:
Report what the stimulus means like the rorsharch/ word association
Association test
Projective test:
Person generates a story- psy shows a pic and then pt makes up a story like TAT, Roberts AP
COnstruction test
Self-reporting questionnaries that assess personal traits by asking respondents to identify descriptions that apply to them; MMPI
Personality inventories
The personality inventories are
1. Science based
2. Responce is not interpreted
3. yes or no only
1. Empirically based
2. Items are objective
3. Forced choice repsonce
Adv to the _____
1. High relibility and validity
2. Inexpensive
3. Easy to administer
Personality inventories
Disadv to ______
1. Easy to fake
2. Forced choice nature
Personality inventories
When the pt finishes a story
Completion
WHen asked to describe self though an activity; i.e. draw-a-person, house-tree-person
Expressive
Adv to _____
1. Open ended
2. hard to fake
Completion and expressive
Disadv to ____
1. Expensive and time conusming
2. Poor realiability and validity
Completion and expressive
Assessment of brain and nervous system functioning by testing an individuyals performance on bx tasks; looks specifically for brain damange/ injuries
Neuropsychological testing
Clinical symptoms; all of the psychological disorders except personality disorders
Axis I
Personality disorder and mental retardation
Axis II
General medical conditions; anything that may be influening how they are doing
Axis III
Psychosocial and enviornmental; anything that is causing stress
Axis IV
Global assessment of functioning scale
Axis V
Unwanted pregnancy
Axis III
GAF = 40
Axis V
Major depression, alcholism
Axis I
Dumped by boyfriend; failing classes; parents' rejection
Axis IV
No personality disorder; None
Axis II
Psychopathology is a bx or psychological pattern that either:
1. Has caused _____ or
2. Has ______ the person in one or more significant areas
Stress
Disabled
System of naming and classification in science
Taxonomy
Classification and naming system for medical and psychological phenomena
Nosology
Classificaiton method founded on teh assumption of clear-cut differences amount disorders, each with a differnt known cuase
Classical categorical approach
Method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binary, either-or or all-or-none basis
dimensional approach
System for categorizing disorders using essential, defining characteristics and a range or variation on other characteristics
Prototypical approach
Educated guess or statement to be tested by research
Hypothesis
Phenomenon that is measured and expected to be influenced; "effect"
DV
Manipulated by experimenter; cause
IV
Extent to which the results of a research study can be attributed to the independent variable after confounding alternative explanations have been ruled out
Internal validity
Extent to which research study findings generalize, or apply, to people and setting no involved in teh study
External validity
Any factor occurring in a research study taht makes the results uninterpretable b/c its effects cannot be separated from those of the variables being studied
Confound
Approach to research employing subjects who are similar to clinical clients, allowing replication of a clinical problem under controlled conditions
Analog model
Probability that obtaiing the observed research findings merely by chance is small
Statistical significance
Degree to which research findings have useful and meaningful applications to real problems
Clinical significance
Possibility that, when two variables, A and B are correclated, variable A causes variable B or visa-vera
Directionality
Research method examining the prevalence, distribution and consequences of disorders in population
Epidemiology
Can establish causation by manipulating the variables and controling alternative explanation
experiemnt
Degree of change in a pnenomenon over time
Variability
Direction of change of a bx or bxs
Trend
Degree of bx change with different interventions
level
Removing a treatment to note whether it has been effective
WIthdrawl design
Observable characteristics or bx of an individual
Phenotype
Specific genetic makeup of an ind
Genotype
Ethical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a reserach study only after they receive full disclose about the nature of the study and their role in it
Informed consent
Conditions that bias diagnosis:
1. Setting
2. If we want to see pathology, we will
3. if someone with authority tells us one thing, will believe it
4. like age, culture, race
1. Context
2. Expectation
3. Source credibility
4. Bias based on client characteristics
WHen we do this, it leaves the pt sounding like disease and not human
Labeling
WHy diagnose?
1. Helps us choose best ____
2. Helps us do ____ on disorder
3. Makes ____ easier b/w professionals
1. Treatment
2. Research
3. COmmunication
Situational determinants of bx; ABC; Like direct observation, Self-monitoring and checklists and rating scales
Behavioral assessment
Partisipants are equal; like friends or colleagues
symmetrical
One participant is superior to the other
complementary
Ensures that the meaning of the message is accurately understood by both parties
clarity
Promotes connections among ideas
continuity
Verbal messagage
content
Nonverbal behavior
process
conflicting message
double messages
mix of content and process
double-bind message
0-18 inches
intimate distance
18-40 inches
personal distance
4-12 ft
social distance
12 ft or more
public distance
voice loudness, pitch, rate and fluency
paralinguistics
giving neutral feedback in form of restating or summarizing what the cleint has already said
verbal tracking
these people have been taught to avoid eye contact with authority figues
hispanic
these people show respect by avoiding eye contact
asians
specific channel fro transmitting and receiving messages
silence
yes, uh-huh
accepting
indicates awareness of change and personal efforts; good morning, your've combed your hair...
giving recognition
I would like to spend time with you
offering self
go on, and then?, tell me about it
offering general leads
Where would you like to begin?, what are you thinking about?
giving broad openings
You appear tense, i noticed you are biting your lips
Making observations
Tell me what that's like for you...
encouraging description of perception
tell me about that
exploring
My purpose for being here is....
Giving info
I am not sure I follow you
Seeking clarification
What you should never say; implys criticim
Why questions
Threat-to survival is conveyed by the
hypothalamas
Pituitary begins mobilizing the release of the
adrenocorticotripic hormone (ACTH)
With the GAS model, the body reacts psysiologically in the same manner regarless of whether the stress is _____ or _____
real or preceived
This involves stressors like trauma, cold/heat, infection...
Physicial stressors
This includes things like divorce, loss of job...
Psychological stressors
This includes a number of relaxation techniques (meditiation, guided imagery, breathing exercises, and muscles relaxation, biofeedback
Behavioral methods
Teaches cleint how to switch from teh sympathetic mode of the autonomic nervous system to relaxation
Benson's relaxation technique
creates a hypometabolic state of quieting the sympathetic nervous system
MEditation
person to led to envison images that are both calming and health enhancing
guided imagery
cognitive-behavioral therapy; gives a person prompt and exact info, regarding muscle activity, brain waves, skin temp...
biofeedback
journal keeping, priority restructuring, cognitive reframing, humor and assertiveness training
cognitive approaches
involves shifting the balance from stress producting to stress-reducing activities
priority restructuring
greater postiive affect and higher self-esteem; like "I will have to study hard for this course" instead of "I can't pass this course." or overgeneralizations can also be changed
Cognitive reframing
State produced by a change in the enviornment tha tis perceived as challening, threatening or damaging to a person's well-being
Stress
Universal human experience; most basic of all emotions
anxiety
reaction to a specific danger
fear
normal experince of everyday living; ability of perceive reality is brought into sharp focus; like nail biting, foot tapping...
mild anxiety
Perceptual field narrows; sees and hears less info; but learning and problem solving can still take place although not at optimal level
Moderate anxiety
Perceptual field is greatly reduced; focus on one particular detain and many scattered details; may have difficulty noticing what is going on in the enviornment
Severe anxiety
Maredly disturbed bx; confusion, shouting, screaming, withdrawl
Panic level of anxiety
Meeting the needs of others; healthy coping mechanism
Altruism
Unconscious process of substituting contructive and socially accepting activity for stong impulses that are not acceptible in their original form; this is always a healthy coping mechanism
Sublimation
Conscious denial of a disturbing situation or feeling
Suppression
Exclusion of unpleasant or unwanted experiences, emotions or ideas; cornerstone of the defense mechanism
Repression
Tranfer of emotions assoicated with a particular person, object or situation to another person that is nonthreating; boss yells at man... man at wife... wife at kid...
Displacement
Unacceptable feelings or behaviors are kept out of awareness by developing opposite behavior or emiotn
reaction formation
Physical symptoms to stress
Somatization
Makes up for act or communicaiton
Undoing
A disruption in teh usually integrated functions of conscious, memeory, identity or perception fo the environment
Dissociation
Emotional conflicts or stressors are dealt with by attributing negative qualities to self or others
devaluation
Emotional conflicts or stressors are dealt with by attributing exaggerated positive qualities to others
idealization
Inability to integrate the pos and neg qualities of oneself or other into a cohesive image
splitting
Hallmark of blaming or scapegaoting; poeple who always feel others are out to get them
Projection
Escaping unpleasent realities by ignoring their excistance
denial