Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/170

Click to flip

170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Organs and structures found along TRANSPYLORIC PLANE:
1 9th costal cartilage
2 L1 body
3 1st part of duodenum
4 stomach pyloris
5 superior margin of pancreatic head
6 pancreatic neck
7 fundus of the gallbladder
8 abdominal aorta
9 celiac trunk of aorta
10 superior mesenteric artery
11 hilar region of each kidney
911, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, red blood, kidney
Organs and structures found along SUBCOSTAL PLANE:
1 10 ribs laterally
2 L3 body
3 third part of the duodenum
4 pancreatic head lower margin
5 inferior mesenteric artery
Organs and structures found between the TRANSPYLORIC and SUBCOSTAL PLANES:
1 L2 vertebra
2 origin from aorta of paired renal arteries
3 paired gonadal arteries
4 pancreatic head
5 second part of duodenum
Organs and structures found along the INTERILIAC (supracristal or intercristal) PLANE:
1 upper margin of iliac crests
2 4th lumbar vertebral body
3 bifurcation point of the aorta
4 inferior vena cava formation
Nine abdominal regions
1 | 2 | 1
3 | 4 | 3
5 | 6 | 5
1 hypochondriac
2 epigastrium
3 flank (lumbar/lateral)
4 umbilical
5 groin (inguinal/iliac)
6 pubic (hypogastrium)
Two layers of the subcutaneous tissue (superficial fascia) of the lower abdomen:
1 Superficial Fatty (Camper's) fascia
2 Deeper Membranous (Scarpa's) fascia
The Deeper Membranous layer of the subcutaneous tissue of the lower abdomen has a continuity below with:
a similar membranous layer of the perineum which lies superficial to the urine-conducting urethra.
When the urethra is traumatically ruptured, urine may enter the lower abdomen, but not the thigh. Why?
Because the membranous layer of the superficial fascia of the abdomen attaches to the deep fascia of the thigh just below the inguinal ligament.
The _____ nerves innervate the full thickness of the abdominal wall including skin, muscle, and parietal peritoneum.
lateral and anterior cutaneous branches of:
1 (thoracoabdominal) intercostal nerves(T7-11)
2 subcostal (T12)
3 iliohypogastric (T12,L1)
4 ilioinguinal (L1)
The lateral and anterior cutaneous branches which supply the abdominal wall run in the plane between _____
the internal abdominal oblique and transversus abdominus muscles
Important dermatomal landmarks for abdominal dermatomes:
T7 - xiphoid
T10 - umbilicus
L1 - inguinal/groin area
The thoracoabdominal nerves innervate:
First the full thickness of the thoracic wall, then the full thickness of the abdominal wall.
Why might the pain of pneumonia of the right lower lobe and adjacent parietal pleura be referred to the lower right quadrant of the abdominal wall, suggesting appendicitis?
Because the thoracoabdominal nerves which first serve the lower right thoracic cavity also serve the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.
Abdominal pain can arise from:
Lower pulmonary disease involving the overlying parietal pleura.
The SUPERFICIAL VEINS of the abdominal subcutaneous tissues communicate with:
below, central, above
BELOW as tributaries of the femoral veins => inferior vena cava
CENTRAL with small paraumbilical veins=> round ligament=> portal vein
ABOVE with axillary -> subclavian -> brachiocephalic -> superior vena cava system
Distension or varicosity of the abdominal SUPERFICIAL VEINS could indicate:
obstruction of the inferior vena cava, superior vena cava, or portal veins.
Obstruction of the inferior vena cava could shunt blood through the ______ to the _______
superficial abdominal veins
superior vena caval system
Obstruction of the portal veins causes distension of the ________, leading to a distinctive presentation, _____.
small paraumbilical veins
caput medusae - elevated mass of subcutaneous veins radiating out of the umbilicus
Obstruction of the superior vena caval system could shunt blood through the _____ into the ______
superficial abdominal veins
femoral-iliac-inferior vena caval system
What are the four pairs of muscles that make up the anterolateral abdominal wall?
1 parasagittal - rectus abdominus
2 anterolateral - external abdominal oblique
3 anterolateral - internal abdominal oblique
4 anterolateral - transversus abdominus
In the plane between the internal abdominal oblique and the transversus abdominus, what structures may be found?
the nerves of the anterolateral abdominal wall

terminals of the intercostal and lumbar branches of the aorta and inferior vena cava
What is the Valsalva maneuver?
contraction of the anterolateral abdominal muscles against a closed glottis increases intraabdominal pressure
What do the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles facilitate when they increase intraabdominal pressure?
coughing, defecation, urination, childbirth
The lower ends of the anterolateral abdominal muscles contribute to what two structures?
1 the walls of the inguinal canal
2 the fascial investments of the spermatic cords
The rectus abdominus muscle attaches below to the _____ and above to _____
pubic crest

costal cartilages of the lower rib cage on either side of the xiphoid process
The embryonic descent of the testes pursues an _____ course through the __________
oblique course

lower anterior abdominal wall
As they descend, the embryonic testes are preceded by an evagination of the parietal peritoneum called ______
the processus vaginalis
The embryonic female gonads do not descend, but the ______ pursues a similar descent to the testes, to attach to the ______
round ligament of the uterus

deep surface of the dermis of the anterior labia majora
What is the RECTUS SHEATH?
a dense aponeurosis that encloses the rectus abdominus muscle
What is the SEMILUNAR LINE?
the lateral border of the rectus abdominus muscle; the insertion point of the three anterolateral abdominal muscles
What is the LINEA ALBA?
the midsagittal point of interdigitation for the two sides of the aponeuroses of the rectus sheath
Herniae may occur in weak spots of the anterolateral abdominal wall musculature, such as the _____
linea alba and semilunar line
What anastomoses occur in the interval between the rectus abdominus and the posterior layer of the rectus sheath?
the superior epigastric terminal branches of the internal thoracic vessels and the inferior epigastric branches of the external iliac vessels
The arterial anastomoses that occur within the anterolateral abdominal wall can serve as long-loop collaterals around an obstruction of what arterial system?
the descending aorta-common iliac-external iliac system
The venous anastomoses within the anterolateral abdominal wall form a potential deep collateral channel for:
the inferior and superior vena cava
The EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE MUSCLE arises from:
the lower anterolateral rib cage
The EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE MUSCLE fibers course _____ from their insertion
obliquely, anteriorly and medially
The EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE MUSCLE fibers insert:
to the anterior iliac crest (low part of muscle)
a broad aponeurosis
The broad aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique helps form the ________ and eventually inserts on the _______
rectus sheath

linea alba
The lower part of the EXTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE APONEUROSIS contributes substantially to the walls of the __________
inguinal canal
The INGUINAL LIGAMENT is formed by the:
lower margin of the external abdominal oblique aponeurosis
The fascia lata of the thigh attaches where?
above the apparent inguinal ligament where the external abdominal oblique aponeurosis turns under to form this ligament.
What is the LACUNAR LIGAMENT?
a portion of the medial end of the inguinal ligament with is reflected from the pubic tubercle laterally along the pecten pubis for about 2-3 cms.
The lacunar ligament continues laterally from its insertion along the _______ as a fibrous ridgeline called the __________
pecten pubis

PECTINEAL LIGAMENT
What is the surgical usage of the PECTINEAL LIGAMENT?
anchoring sutures during inguinal or femoral hernia repair or surgery for urinary incontinence.
The external abdominal oblique aponeurosis forms most of the ____________ just above the _______
anterior wall of the inguinal canal

inguinal ligament
The inferior portion of the aponeurosis of the external abdominal oblique, followed from lateral to medial, splits into a medial and lateral ______ to enclose an elliptical gap called ______
crus

SUPERFICIAL INGUINAL RING
The superficial inguinal ring marks the ____________ end of the __________
superficial medial

inguinal canal
What normally covers the superficial inguinal ring?
What is it called as it evaginates over the contents of the inguinal canal?
the fascia over the external abdominal oblique aponeurosis

EXTERNAL SPERMATIC FASCIA
What are the boundaries of the LUMBAR TRIANGLE?
anterior - external abdominal oblique
posterior - latissimus dorsi
inferior - iliac crest
Why is the LUMBAR TRIANGLE a site of rare lumbar herniae?
because the external abdominal oblique is lacking at this point; it is a thin area of the abdominal wall
If blood is discovered subcutaneously at the lumbar triangle, what might this indicate?
a retroperitoneal hemorrhage, e.g. traumatic kidney rupture, in which the blood dissects along fascial planes to the lumbar triangle
The INTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE MUSCLE originates below from ___________
the anterior part of the iliac crest (upper fibers) and from the lateral portion of the inguinal ligament (lower fibers)
The INTERNAL ABDOMINAL OBLIQUE MUSCLE "inserts":
upper fibers
lower fibers
upper fibers - lower rib cage superiorly, blend w/rectus sheath medially

lower fibers - help form lateral part of anterior wall of inguinal canal, then arch medially to form superior part of inguinal canal
The curved lower part (medial, lower fibers) of the internal abdominal oblique muscle is paralleled deeply by a similar lower portion of the ________ muscle to form the ________
transversus abdominus muscle

INGUINAL FALX or CONJOINT TENDON
The CREMASTERIC FASCIA AND MUSCLE are formed when the ______ are carried out over the_______
internal oblique fascia and some of its muscle fibers

spermatic cord structures
The TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINUS MUSCLES arises above from _______, inferiorly from ____________ , posteriorly from ______________ and ultimately from ________
lower rib cage

lateral part of inguinal ligament

thoracolumbar fascia

spinous and transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae
The inferior transversus abdominal muscle follows the same course as the ______________ over the contents of the inguinal canal to form the ___________
internal abdominal oblique

inguinal falx
TRANSVERSALIS FASCIA is:
a relatively discrete fascial layer deep to the transversus abdominal muscle
TRANSVERSALIS FASCIA lines:

and is continuous with:
the interior of much of the abdominal wall

the fascia over the internal aspect of the posterior abdominal wall muscles and inferior aspect of the diaphragm
How does the INTERNAL SPERMATIC FASCIA form from the transversalis fascia?
the transversalis fascia evaginates about the spermatic cord structures just deep to the origins of the internal abdominal oblique and transversus abdominus muscles from the inguinal ligaments.
What is the DEEP INGUINAL RING? What locus does it mark?
The point of evagination of the internal spermatic fascia.

the locus where the male spermatic cord structures converge to enter the inguinal canal
and
where the female round ligament of the uterus leaves the abdominal cavity.
What neurovascular structures ascend just medial to the deep inguinal ring?
The INFERIOR EPIGASTRIC BRANCHES of the external iliac vessels.
Just deep to the transversalis fascia, the inferior epigastric branches of the external iliac vessels ascend obliquely toward the rectus sheath with the __________
EXTRAPERITONEAL FASCIA (CONNECTIVE TISSUE)
The inguinal canal's inferior wall is formed by:
The inguinal ligament

a hammock-like structure

laterally - anterior superior-iliac spine
medially - pubic tubercle
The inguinal canal's anterior (superficial) wall is formed by:
lower portion of the external abdominal oblique aponeurosis

just above the point where

it turns deeply at its lower margin to form

the inguinal ligament
The inguinal canal's superior wall is formed by:
the superior wall of the inguinal canal is formed by

the inguinal falx

as the lower margins of
the internal abdominal oblique and transversus abdominus muscles

arch medially over the contents of the inguinal canal

with a slight superficial to deep inclination
The inguinal canal's posterior (deep) wall is formed by:
the (relatively weak)transversalis fascia throughout much of its extent
In the male, the inguinal canal contains:
the excretory and neurovascular structures of the testis and epididymus
In the male, how did the contents of the inguinal canal pass through the abdominal wall?
The descent of the testis.
The neurovascular structures of the testis and epididymus run within the _________ and converge at the ________
abdominopelvic extraperitoneal connective tissues

deep inguinal ring
The neurovascular structures of the testis and epididymus pass through the ______ within the internal spermatic fascia and its covering of __________
deep inguinal ring

cremasteric and external spermatic fascial ensheathments
The SPERMATIC CORD contents include:
1 cremasteric and external spermatic fascial ensheathments
2 spermatic fascia
3 ductus (vas) deferens
4 testicular artery
5 pampiniform plexus of veins
6 testicular lymphatics
7 testicular plexus of autonomic nerves
8 vessels to the ductus deferens
The DUCTUS (VAS) DEFERENS :
conveys spermatozoa from the epididymis within the scrotum to the ejaculatory duct in the pelvis.
Why is the ductus deferens easily palpable within the spermatic cord?
A firm, cord-like structure, it has a thick muscular wall.
What pathology is the pampiniform plexus of veins predisposed to, and why?
The testis' gravitational dependency predisposes the pampiniform plexus to varicosity, and may form a palpable varicocele.
In the female, what is the major content of the inguinal cord?
The ROUND LIGAMENT OF THE UTERUS.
What terminal nerve passes through the inguinal canal?
The ILIOINGUINAL NERVE
What does the ilioinguinal nerve innervate?
the anterior skin of the labia majora or scrotum
Where can one find the ilioinguinal nerve?
Within the inguinal canal, on the surface of the cremasteric muscle and fascia layer.
In the pelvic region, where can one find the ILIOHYPOGASTRIC NERVE?
A few cms above the inguinal canal in the plane deep to the external abdominal oblique muscle.
What are the three sheaths of the spermatic cord?
1 external spermatic fascia
2 cremasteric fascia
3 internal spermatic fascia
Describe the cremasteric reflex:
when the skin of the lower abdominal wall or medial thigh is scratched, the reflex arc's motor segment is through the GENITAL BRANCH OF THE GENITOFEMORAL NERVE which causes contraction of the cremasteric muscle fibers
What is an inguinal hernia?
a protrusion of the parietal peritoneum into the inguinal canal
The parietal peritonuem of an inguinal hernia may contain what?
a loop of small or large intestine or the omental apron
In indirect hernias, through what structure does the peritoneal sac protrude?
the deep inguinal ring
How do indirect hernias get their name?
Entering the deep inguinal ring, they may follow the same oblique, "indirect" course as the descent of the testis, through the inguinal canal.
What is the relationship of an indirect hernia to the inferior epigastric vessels?
Because an indirect hernia passes through the deep inguinal ring, it is lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels.
Direct hernias protrude through what structure?
The relatively weak transversalis fascia of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal.
What is the relationship of a direct hernia to the inferior epigastric vessels?
The hernia is medial to the inferior epigastric vessels.
When a direct hernia protrudes through the transversalis fascia, what musculovasculoligamentous structure does it pass through?

What makes up this structure?
Hesselbach's Triangle.
Medial: lateral border of rectus abdominus
Lateral: inferior epigastric vessels
Inferiorly: inguinal ligament
At Hesselbach's triangle, the weak transversalis fascia underlies at least a portion of the _______
superficial inguinal ring
What closes the superficial inguinal ring?
the fascia over the external abdominal oblique muscle
Testing for herniae:
the scrotum/anterior labia majora is gently invaginated by a fingertip. The tip of the examiner's finger can be introduced into the inguinal canal through the superficial inguinal ring. The palmar surface of the finger is directed posteriorly and the patient is asked to cough. What happens?
distal tip is tapped: indirect

palmar surface is tapped: direct
How is the peritoneum similar to the pleural and pericardial serous membranes?
They are each essentially a closed sac.
The PARIETAL PERITONEUM lines:
the internal aspect of all the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity.
The EXTRAPERITONEAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE is situated between:
the parietal peritoneum and the (more superficial) transversalis fascia.
The extraperitoneal connective tissue contains:
All of the major neurovascular structures of the abdominopelvic cavity and the retroperitoneal and subperitoneal organs.
Name the three types of invaginating relationships an abdominopelvic organ may have with the peritoneal sac.
1 retroperitoneal/subperitoneal
2 partially peritonealized
3 completely peritonealized
Abdominal organs which do not invaginate the peritoneal sac:

Pelvic organs that do not invaginate the peritoneal sac:
retroperitoneal

subperitoneal
Examples of retroperitoneal organs: (5)
kidneys, ureters, adrenals, pancreas, duodenum (except first part)
Organs which indent the peritoneal sac only a small amount, such that they are covered by peritoneum on several aspects, are:
PARTIALLY PERITONEALIZED
Examples of partially peritonealized organs: (2)
ascending and descending colon
Organs which invaginate the peritoneal sac as much as possible are:
COMPLETELY PERITONEALIZED
Completely peritonealized organs are covered by peritoneum on all sides except along a line where a double layer of peritoneum is reflected off of them toward the abdominal wall as a ______
MESENTERY
Examples of completely peritonealized organs: (8)
stomach, 1st part of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, transverse and sigmoid colon, appendix and spleen
As soon as peritoneum leaves the abdominal wall and reflects over any organ or forms a mesentery it is called:
VISCERAL PERITONEUM
An organ which is suspended from the body wall must recieve its neurovascular suply through the _______ with which it remains in contact with the major neurovascular structures in the extraperitoneal connective tissues.
mesentery
A MESENTERY is typically made up of three layers:
1 visceral peritoneum
2 loose connective tissue (fat, neurovascular)
3 visceral peritoneum
The varying degree of peritonealization affects two things:
1 -
2 -
1 - type of pain an organ generates during disease
2 - pathological fluids can easily accumulate in PERITONEAL CAVITY
The major causal determinant of abdominopelvic organ location, positioning, and relationships is ________
The topography of the posterior wall of the abdominopelvic cavity.
None
The posterior abdominopelvic wall has two sets of prominent ridgelines:
a single midline longitudinal ridgeline, paired obliquely placed ridgelines at the level of the pelvic inlet
The longitudinal ridgeline intersects the oblique ridgelines near ____________
The sacral promontory
Both sets of abdominopelvic ridgelines are formed by:
bony, muscular, and vascular components
The major bony contribution to the anteroposterior dimension of the longitudinal ridgeline is:
The anterior curvature of the lumbar spine and the increasing size of the lumbar vertebrae
The major muscular constituent of the longitudinal ridgeline is the:
psoas major muscles
Why does the longitudinal ridgeline's transverse dimension increase as it is followed inferiorly?
Because the psoas major muscles increase in size as they are followed inferiorly
The ____ and the ____ course along the summit of the longitudinal ridgeline, thereby adding to its anteroposterior dimension.
aorta and inferior vena cava
On either side of the longitudinal ridgeline there are deep ________ in the posterior abdominal wall
paravertebral gutters
Due to the paravertebral gutters, any organ which crosses the midline will be displaced ________
anteriorly
Organs which are displaced anteriorly when they cross the midline due to the paravertebral gutters include:
the left lobe of the liver, pyloric region of the stomach, and neck of the pancreas
As organs move off of the abdominopelvic midline into the paravertebral gutters they will be displaced increasingly ________
posteriorly
Organs which are displaced posteriorly as they move from the midline to the paravertebral gutters include:
the right lobe of the liver, the stomach fundus, and body and tail of the pancreas
None
Kidneys and suprarenal glands are suspended by their vascular pedicles on the side slopes of the longitudinal ridgeline, so they are _________ oriented
semisagitally
None
The kidneys and suprarenal glands are semisagitally oriented because of their position on what part of what abdominopelvic ridgeline?
the side slopes of the longitudinal ridgeline
The obliquely placed paired ridgelines of the pelvic inlet are formed by the:
bony pelvic inlet, the diverging psoas major muscles, the common and external iliac vessels
The bony pelvic inlet, the diverging psoas major muscles, and the common and external iliac vessels make up what structure in the abdominopelvic cavity?
The paired oblique ridgelines of the pelvic inlet
The long superior slopes of the oblique ridgelines are largely formed by the ________
paravertebral gutters
The paravertebral gutters form the superior slopes of what paired abdominopelvic structures?
the oblique ridgelines of the pelvic inlet
Organs such as the kidneys and the ascending and descending colon will have their upper portions situated posterior to their lower ends because they lie upon:
the paired oblique ridgelines of the pelvic inlet
The shorter, steep inferomedial slopes of the oblique ridgelines of the pelvic inlet are formed by the :
posterolateral pelvic walls.
The posterolateral pelvic walls help to form the:
inferomedial slopes of the oblique ridgelines of the pelvic inlet
Fluids within the abdominal part of the peritoneal cavity will tend to run off the summit of the _______ into the paravertebral gutters
longitudinal ridgeline
Fluids within the abdominal part of the peritoneal cavity will tend to run off the summit of the longitudinal ridgeling into the ______
paravertebral gutters
Fluid within the paravertebral gutters will flow posterosuperiorly into the ________, _______ or ________ peritoneal recesses.
subphrenic, subhepatic, or perisplenic peritoneal recesses
Fluid that has collected in the subphrenic, subhepatic, or perisplenic peritoneal recesses likely started at the _______, then flowed to the _______
summit of the longitudinal ridgeline, paravertebral gutters.
Any fluids within the pelvic part of the peritoneal cavity will tend to run down the inferomedial slope of the oblique ridgeline of the pelvic inlet into the male ______ or the female ______
rectovesical, rectouterine peritoneal pouches
None
The esophagus enters the abdomen through the ________ of the diaphragm high up on the posterior aspect of the diaphragm slightly to the left of the midline.
esophageal hiatus
The stomach occupies much of the area under the _______ of the diaphragm.
left leaf
The stomach is a) completely b) partially c) retro peritonealized
completely
The stomach is supported by _______ attaching to both its right superior or lesser curvature and left inferior or greater curvature borders.
mesenteries
The shorter mesentery which attaches to the lesser curvature of the stomach forms the bulk of the ________
lesser omentum
The larger, more complex mesentery attaching to the stomach's greater curvature is the ________
greater omentum(dorsal mesogastrium)
Does the GREATER OMENTUM have many subsets?
yes
The GASTROPHRENIC LIGAMENT is the ________ part of the greater omentum
uppermost
The intermediate portion of the greater omentum extends to the left and posteriorly to the spleen as the _________
GASTROSPLENIC LIGAMENT (gastrolienal ligament)
The spleen is situated posterolateral to the stomach and completely underlies the posterolateral rib cage deep to the ______ ribs
9th-11th ribs
The spleen is a) completely b) partially c) retro peritonealized
a) completely
The lower part of the greater omentum descends for several cms to attach to the anterior aspect of the transverse colon as the
GASTROCOLIC LIGAMENT
From this point the greater omentum continues beyond the transverse colon like a large apron draped over the anterior aspect of the lower abdominal organs, sometimes called:
the OMENTAL APRON
None
The omental apron is moved about by the normal _______ activity of the bowel
peristaltic
If any organ in the abdominal cavity is involved in an inflammatory process which has spread through its wall to involve the overlying peritoneum, the omental apron may randomly contact this inflamed surface and become involved in the inflammation and ______ to the inflammatory site.
adherent
By adhering to sites of inflammation, the greater omentum can _______ an abdominal inflammatory process
help seal off or localize
The peritoneum on the posterior surface of the omental apron can be followed up to its attachment to the _______
transverse colon
Embryonically, the greater omentum fuses with the superior aspect of the _________
transverse mesocolon
In the adult, the greater omentum's posterior peritoneal layer “appears” to reflect over the inferior aspect of the transverse colon and become continuous with the peritoneum on the inferior surface of the mesentery of the transverse colon, the _________
transverse mesocolon
The TRANSVERSE MESOCOLON is the peritoneum on the inferior surface of the mesentery of the _________
transverse colon
The lesser omentum has ____ parts
two
The large upper portion of the lesser omentum is the
HEPATOGASTRIC LIGAMENT
The hepatogastric ligament of the lesser omentum extends in the coronal plane from the lesser curvature of the stomach toward the right to the ______
porta of the liver
The smaller lower part of the lesser omentum is the
HEPATODUODENAL LIGAMENT
The hepatoduodenal ligament ascends from the superior margin of the first part of the duodenum up to the ______
porta of the liver
To delineate the hepatoduodenal ligament, the peritonealized first part of the _______ can be identified extending to the right and posteriorly from the palpably thickened pylorus of the _______.
duodenum, stomach
The hepatoduodenal ligament forms the right free edge of the lesser omentum and contains the:
common bile duct, proper hepatic artery and portal vein
The hepatoduodenal ligament forms the anterior boundary of the_________
omental (epiploic) foramen (of winslow)
The OMENTAL (EPIPLOIC) FORAMEN (of Winslow) permits the communication of the greater peritoneal cavity with its largest cul de sac, the ________
OMENTAL BURSA (lesser sac)
If a finger or a longer instrument is introduced behind the right free edge of the hepatoduodenal ligament and directed to the left it will pass through the epiploic foramen into the __________
omental bursa
The epiploic foramen (foramen of winslow, omental foramen) has the two major abdominal veins in its walls with the ________ in its anterior wall and the ________ in its posterior wall.
portal vein, inferior vena cava
A portion of the greater omentum extends from the spleen to the left kidney:
the SPLENORENAL LIGAMENT (lienorenal ligament)
The GASTROPHRENIC LIGAMENT is the uppermost part of the greater omentum, and can be followed posteriorly to the_______
diaphragm.
None