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115 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 quadrants of the abdomen?
Right and left cranial,right and left caudal
What is the lateral part of the middle region of the abdomen?
Flank
What are the inguinal regions?
Area next to junction of thigh and abdomen.
What is the dorsal part of the flank region?
Paralumbar fossa
List the main structures found in the left cranial quadrant?
Diaphragm, lft.liver lobes, fundus and body of stomach, cranial pole of left kidney, spleen, left limb of pancreas
List structures crossing the midline bt. the left and right cranial quadrants?
Body of stomach, tranverse colon, left limb of pancreas, liver, diaphragm
What main structures are located in the right cranial quadrant?
Diaphragm, epiploic foramen, caudal lobe of liver, right lobe and body of pancreas, pylorus and pyloric antrum, descending duodenum, right adrenal, cranial lobe of right kidney
What main structures are located in the right caudal quadrant?
descending duodenum, cecum,uterine horn and ovary, caudal pole of right kidney, right ductus deferens, right vaginal ring, right ureter
List structures crossing the midline bt. the left and right caudal quadrants?
Uterine body,urinary bladder, prostate (if enlarged), terminal branches of aorta, caudal flexure of duodenum; ileum
List the main structures found in the left caudal quadrant?
descending colon, left ureter, caudal mesenteric a., mesocolon, left uterine horn and ovary, left ductus deferens, left vaginal ring, left ureter
Where is the fundus of the stomach located?
Left cranial/dorsal abdomen
What structures are easy keys to visualizing the location of other abdominal structures?
Descending duodenum on right side and descending colon on left side.
What spaces store milk in the mammary gland?
Lactiferous (milk)sinus (cistern)= glands sinus+ teat sinus
What passages lead from the teat sinus to the outside?
Teat canal or papillary duct
Generally where do the mammary glands lymphatics drain?
Caudal: superficial inguinal ln.; Cranial: to axillary ln (also accessory axillary if present,sternal)
List the abdominal muscles from superficial to deep.
EAO
IAO
Transverse abdominis and ventrally the Rectus abdominus
What is a flat thin tendon called?
Aponeurosis
What is the caudal free edge of the aponeurosis of EAO extending from the tuber coxae around the iliopsoas muscle to the prepubic tendon?
Inguinal ligament
What is the rectus sheath?
Aponeuroses of the abdominal mm. around the rectus abdominis m., meet/ fuse at the linea alba
Which rectus sheath is most clinically important?
External rectus sheath
Where do the aponeuroses of the abdominal muscles meet/fuse?
Midline to form the linea alba
What is the deep fascia of the back?
Thoracolumbar fascia
What is the musculotendinous partition between the thorax and abdomen?
Diaphragm (cranial boundary of the abdomen)
List the openings through the diaphragm.
Aortic, esophageal hiatis and caval foramen
What is the motor innervation of the diaphragm?
Phrenic nerve (somatic n.)
How does the cavity of the bony thorax relate to the thoracic cavity?
Larger, dome of the diaphragm extends into bony thorax to 6th intercostal space (encases abdomen)
What is the intrathoracic part of the abdominal cavity?
Cranial part, protected by caudal ribs and costal cartilages
What is a directional term for a part further from the mouth?
Aborad
What is the term for a part closer to the mouth>
Orad
What are the 2 named curvatures of the stomach?
greater and lesser curvature
What is the muscular sphincter surrounding the stomach's outflow?
Pylorus
List parts of the stomach.
Cardia,fundus,body, pylorus (pyloric antrum,pylorus, pyloric opening)
What is the least vascular part of the stomach?
Body between 2 curvatures
What side of the animal is the pylorus? The fundus?
Pylorus: right (as is duodenum), fundus: left
Which is more ventral the fundus or pylorus of the stomach?
Pylorus
Name the 3 divisions of the small intestine.
duodenum,jejunum,ileum
Which part of the small intestine has the longest mesentery?
Jejunum, give great range of motion
The descending duodenum is on what side of the abdomen?
Right
List the parts of the large intestine?
Cecum,colon, and rectum, anal canal
Where is the cecum located?
Right side (Right caudal quadrant)
To what are species differences in the large intestine due?
Modification of the ascending colon
What is the opening of the ileum into the colon (not cecum)?
Ileocolic (ileal) opening (orifice)
Name the three parts of the colon.
Ascending,transverse and descending
What is the course of the tranverse colon in all domestic species?
Right to left cranial to root of mesentery
On which side of the animal is the descending colon?
Left, can call it the left colon
What are the reservoirs for secretions opening into the carnivore's anus?
Anal sacs (paranal sinuses)
Where do the anal sacs open in the anal canal?
4 and 8 o'clock positions
Where is the liver located?
Cranial abdomen, above the diaphragm, almost completely intrathoracic.
The renal impression is in which liver lobe? Which side of Liver?
Caudate lobe (caudate process), right
What structure stores and concentrates bile?
Gall bladder
What is the structural unit of the liver?
Lobule
List the parts of the pancreas and their locations.
Right limb: mesoduodenum, body: near pylorus;
left limb: deep leaf greater omentum
Where is the dorsal end of spleen located? Ventral?
On left (fixed to greater curvature), variable
What is the elongated area of the spleen where vessels enter?
Hilus
What arteries pass from the spleen to the fundus of the stomach?
Short gastric aa.
What is a serous membrane?
A thin, continuous membrane lining a closed cavity and covering its organs
Of what does the serosa consists?
Layer of mesothelium (simple squamous) & connective tissue backing
What is mesothelium?
Epithelium of all serous membranes
What is the purpose of a serous membrane?
Secrete fluid to reduce friction bt. organs
Name the serous membranes of the pericardium, thorax, abdomen and vaginal process.
Serous pericardium; Pleura; Peritoneum; Vaginal tunic
What serous membrane covers the walls of a cavity?
Parietal (parietal means wall)
What serous membrane or serosa covers an organ?
Visceral peritoneum (often just called serosa or peritoneum)
What serous membrane connects parietal and visceral or visceral with visceral serosa?
connecting
What do clinicians usually call the visceral serosa on an organ?
Serosa
What serosa lines the abdomen and covers its organs?
Peritoneum (epiploon)
List 3 different types of peritoneum.
Parietal, visceral and connecting
List 3 or 4 types of connecting peritoneum.
Mesenteries,omenta, ligaments and folds
What peritoneum connects the liver and the ventral abdominal wall?
Falciform ligament
How many layers are in the different classifications of peritoneum?
Parietal and visceral-1: connecting-2
What is the peritoneal cavity?
Potential space bt. parietal and visceral peritoneum
What is in the peritoneal cavity?
scant amount of fluid, no organs
Name 2 subdivisions of the peritoneal cavity?
Ovarian bursa and omental bursa
List the 3 pouches of the peritoneum?
Rectogenital, vesicogenital, pubovesical
What does retroperitoneal mean?
behind peritoneum
Give the location of the epiploic foramen into the omental bursa.
Ventromedial to caudatelobe(liver) bt. caudal vena cava and portal v.(and hepatic a.)
What is in the free edge of the middle ligament of the bladder?
Urachus or remanent of urachus
What is a mesentary?
connecting peritoneum bt. organ's visceral peritoneum and parietal peritoneum
How are mesenteries named?
Meso + organ connected
What is the functions of mesenteries?
Suspend organs and path for vessels and nn. to organ
What is the root of the mesentery?
Attachment of mesentary to dorsal abdomen
Name the four unpaired branches of the abdominal aorta?
Celiac, cranial and caudal mesenteric and median sacral aa.
What structures does the celiac artery supply?
Cranial abdominal organs (stomach,liver,spleen and part of duodenum
What are the 3 branches of the Celiac artery?
Left Gastric, Splenic and Hepatic
What are the numerous vessels to the jejunum?
Jejunal arteries from cranial mesenteric a.
How do the jejunal arteries terminate to supply the jejunum?
Form arcades and vasa recti to jejunum
How are the ovarian arteries located?
Lift up ovary and look for vessels in mesovarium
How are the testicular arteries located in the abdomen?
Passing caudal to kidney to vaginal ring
What vein returns blood to the heart from the abdomen, pelvis and pelvic limb?
Caudal vena cava
How is the caudal vena cava formed?
External and internal iliac vv. unite=2 common iliac vv. which unite=caudal vena cava
What vein carries the blood from the abdominal viscera to the liver?
Portal v. (hepatic portal v.)
What are the 1 degree abdominal organs not drained by the portal vein?
Kidneys, adrenal glands,gonads,liver
Why aren't the kidneys,adrenals and gonads drained by the portal vein?
Their hormones would be destroyed by the liver.
To where does the lymph from the pelvic limbs, pelvis and abdomen drain?
Cisterna chyli
What lymphatic vessel drains the lymph from the cisterna chyli?
Thoracic duct
What are the large lymph nodes beneath the termination of the aorta?
medial iliac lymph nodes
What are the intestinal lymphatic vessels that absorb fat?
Lacteals
What directions do the ventral branches of the spinal nerves travel?
Caudalventral direction
What is the sympathetic innervation to the abdomen?

Parasympathetic
Sympathetic trunk, splanchic nn., collateral ganglion and plexuses

Vagus:through transverse colon
Where are the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic division located?
Near branches of abdominal aorta
Where are the collateral ganglia of the sympathetic division located?
near branches of abdominal aorta
What gland is part of the sympathetic ANS?
Adrenal glands (medulla)
What is the spacial relationship of the two kidneys?
Right a half a kidney length cranial to left
What is an easy way to remember which kidney is more cranially?
Right fits in renal impression of liver
What makes up the parenchyma of the kidneys?
Outer cortex and inner medulla
What is the expanded proximal end of the ureters?
Renal pelvis
What tube carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder?
Ureter
What is the longitudinal ridge protecting into the renal pelvis?
Renal crest
Where does urine drip from the kidney?
renal crest
Which species has capsular veins on the outside of its kidneys?
Cat
What parts of the renal pelvis surrounds the pseudopapillae?
Pelvic recesses/diverticulae
What are the parts of the urinary bladder?
Neck, body and apex
How do the ureters pass through the bladder wall and why?
Oblique angle to prevent backflow
Where is the trigone of the urinary bladder?
Dorsal internal area bt. the two urethral openings of the urethra.
What is the microscopic functional unit of the kidney?
Nephron
What non-nephrotic structure carries urine from the nephron to the renal pelvis?
Collecting ducts