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248 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
which triangle is anterior?
what are the longitudal muscles in the colon that make the haustra when they contract, called?
tenai coli
what are the small fat tags found on the colon called?
epiploic appendages
what carries bile to the duodenum?
the common bile duct
what is the function of the colon?
absorption of water, vitamins and fecal storage
what is the constricted termination of the digestive tract, surrounded by sphincter muscles that function in the elimination of rectal content?
the anus
what is the largest visceral organ of the body?
the liver
what organ is the site of metalbolic processses, detox of drugs, storage of carbohydrates and lipids, hematological regulation and secretion of bile?
the liver
what ligament attaches the liver to the diaphragm?
the coronary ligament
what are found within the liver lobules?
hepatocytes, central vein, sinusoids, kupffer cells
what carries bile to the common hepatic ducts?
the left and right hepatic ducts
what carries bile to the hepatic ducts?
bile canaliculi and ductules
what duct connects the gall bladder to the common hepatic duct?
cystic duct
which triangle is posterior?
are the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus superficial or deep?
which small bag-like structure at the inferior surface of the wilve that collects and concentrates bile?
the gall bladder
what is the small gland located behind the stomach that extends from the duodenum to the spleen?
the pancreas
what is the function of the pancreas?
produces digestive enzymes
(both exocrine and endocrine functions)
what is found in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen?
liver, gall bladder, hepatic flexure
what organs are found in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen?
stomach, pancreas, spleen, splenic flexure
as the transverse perineus and urethral sphinter superficial or deep?
what is found in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen?
cecum, appendix
what is found in the lower left quadrant of the abdomen?
sigmoid colon
what artery comes off of the aorta just below the diaphragm that divides into three?
the celiac trunk
what are the three branches of the celiac trunk?
left gastric artery
splenic artery
acommon hepatic artery
which branch of the celiac trunk supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach and goes superiorly?
the left gastric
which branch of the celiac trunk goes left and supplies the spleen?
the splenic artery
which branch of the celiac trunk goes right and branches four times?
the common hepatic artery
what are the branches of the common hepatic?
right gastric artery
proper hepatic artery
gastroduodenal artery
what branch of the common hepatic supplies the greater curvature of the stomach?
the right gastric
what branch of the common hepatic artery supplies a small part of the stomach but most of the duodenum?
the gasto duodenal artery
what artery is a branch of the right hepatic and supplies the gall bladder?
cystic artery
what is the arch between the palate and the tongue?
palatoglossal arch
what are the branches of the descending aorta?
celiac trunk
superior messentaric artery
inferior mesenteric artery
renal arteries
gonadal arteries
lumbar arteries
common iliac
what are the three brances of the superior mesenteric artery?
right colic
middle colic
what branch of the superior messenteric artery supplies the border of the ileum and cecum?
ileocolic artery
what branch of the superior mesentaric artery supplies the ascending colon?
the right colic artery
what branch of the superior messentaric artery supplies the transverse colon?
the middle colic
what are the three branches of the inferior mesenteric artery?
left colic
superior rectal
what branch of the inferior mesentaric arty supplies the descending colon?
the left colic artery
what branch of the inferior mesenteric artery supplies the sigmoid colon?
the sigmoid artery
what branch of the inferior mesenteric artery supplies the rectum?
the superior rectal artery
what arteries supply the kidneys
the renal
what arteries supply the gonades
gonadal arteries
what is the arch between the palate and pharynx?
palatopharyngeal arch
what arteries supply the posterior abdominal wall, and how many pairs are there?
the lumbar arteries
four pairs
what are the two branches of the common iliac?
external and internal iliac arteries
what filters the blood from the digestive system?
the liver
what vein brins the nutrient rich blood into the liver to be purified?
the portal vein
what vein collects the purified blood from the liver?
the hepatic vein
what two veins merge to become the portal vein?
the superior mesentaric vein and the splenic vein
what vein joins the splenic vein before it joins the superior mesentaric to form the portal vein?
the inferior mesentaric vein
what vein does the hepatic vein join to enter the general venous circulation?
inferior vena cava
what parts of the abdominal fascia divide the abs into 8 parts, on the parts where no muscle is found?
the tendinous intersections
what muscle makes up the posterior wall of the abdomen?
quadratus lumborum
Quadratus lumborum
O: Transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae
I: illiac crest
M: Bending of the spine on the same side
The tendon of what muscle forms that aponerosis that folds over to make the Inguinal ligament?
the external abdominal oblique
the inginal ligament houses the inginal canal, which houses, what?
the deep inguinal ring, superficial inguinal ring, and in males, the spermatic cord
How many deciduous and permanent teeth do people have?
20 deciduous
32 permanent
what makes up the palate of the mouth>?
the palantine process of the maxillae, the horizontal process of the palantine bone, and the soft palate (musclular portion)
where is the uvulua (hangin ball) found?
in the center of the soft palate
what are the three salivary gland?
sublingual, submandibular, parotid
what is the passageway between the oral cavity and pharynx formed by the palatopharyngeal and palatoglossal arches?
where is the sublingual gland found, and where does it open into the oral cavity?
beneath the tonge, on either side of the tongue

opens superiorly via sever small ducts
where is the submandibular gland found and how does it enter the oral cavity
located deep to the mandible

opens via submandibular duct
where is the parotid gland found, and how does it open to the oral cavity?
located beneath the skin between the mandible and sternocleidomastoid

opens opposite 2nd upper molar vial parotid duct
where is the parotid duct found?
opposite 2nd upper molar
where is the pharynx found?
between oral cavity and esophagus
where are the palatine tonsils foudn?
between the palatopharyngeal arches
what is the name of food that has been compacted and partially digested?
what membrance lines the abdominal cavity?
the peritoneum
what layer of the peritoneum surrounds each individual organ?
the visceral peritoneum
what layer of the peritoneum lines the wall of the abdomen?
the parietal peritoneum
what is the space between the two layers where the fluid is found and what is its function?
the paritoneal cavity (intraperitoneal)

prevents friction
what does "retroperitoneal" mean?
behind the peritoneum, not in the lining

ex. kidneys
what is the thickening of the advetitiary layer that anchors the organs to the abdomenal wall?
the messentary tissue
what is the sheet of connective tissue with fat attached that starts at the greater curvature of the stomach?
the great omentum
what sheet of fatty connective tissue is found between the liver and lesser curvature?
the lesser omentum
what is the function of the omentums?
to protect the stomach and keep its shape
what is the epitheleal lining of the stomach, intestines, etc.
the mucosa
what is the thin layer of smooth muscle depp to the mucosa?
muscularis mucosa
what muscle layer is found with 2 planes (longitual, concentric)
the muscularis exteran
what is the outer most layer?
the serosa/adventitia
what seethrough layer surrounds the adventitia
the serosa
what is the first part of the stomarch where the esophagus joins the stomach?
what is the most superior part of the stomach?
the fundus
what is the biggest part of the stomach?
the body
what is the termanal end of the stomach, which is the connection for the stomach and duodenum?
the pylorus
which curvature is on the inner sid?
the lesser
which curvature of the stomach is on the outer side
the greater curvature
what is the name for the exaggerated plyca found in the stomach?
the rugae
where are the two sphincters of the stomach found?
in the cardia and pylorus
what are the three divisions of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
what is the function of the small intestine?
secretes mucus and enzymes for digestions, absorbs nutrients
what are the series of transverse folds found throughout the small intestine that increases the surface area
plica circularis
what is the muscular chamber where the common bile duct and pancreatic duct converge?
the duodenal ampulla
the great omentum not only attaches to the greater curvature, it also covers all of the....
large intestine
what is another name for the large intestine?
the colon
what is the very first section of the large intestine?
where is the vermiform appendix found?
off of the cecum
what is the name of the turn after the ascending colon? what organ is it by?
hepatic flexure

what turn is after the transverse colon? what organ is it by?
the splenic flexure
what comes after the descending colon?
the sigmoid colon
what is the end of the long intestine?
the rectum
what section of the intestine, does not have circular folds?
the large intestine
the large intesting has large sacculations that are formed by the contraction of muscles, what are the sacculations called?
Rectus Abdominis
O: Sternum, costal cartilage
I: symphasis pubis
A: Compress abdominal conflut
N: T7-L1/2
where are the external abdominal obliques found? what direction do their fibers run?
lateral wall of the abdomen
where are the int. abdominal obliques found and what direction do their fibers run?
deep to external
where is the Linea alba found?
connective tissue that runs from the xiphoid process to pubis symphysis
what is another name for the abdominal fascia that encases the ab muscles?
the rectus sheath
what are the functions of the urninary system?
eliminate wastes, maintain fluid balance, regulate Blood pressure, filtration, active and passive absorbtion
what organs make up the urinary system?
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
which organ in the abdomen is retroperitoneal?
the kidneys
what is the deepest covering of tough connective tissue that surrounds the kidneys?
the renal capsule
what is the perirenal fat found between the renal capsule and renal fascia?
adipose tissue
what is the fascial layer surrounding the kidney? (Outer most layer)
renal fascia
what are the three regions of the kindy?
outer cortex, middle medulla, inner renal pelvis
where are the renal columns, renal corpuscles, and bubules found in the kidney?
in the outer cortex
what layer has a granulated appearance and what gives it that?
the cortex, from the renal corpuscles
what is the function of the renal corpuscles?
to filter the blood
what is the function of the proximal and convoluted tubules found in the cortex of the kidney?
to reasorb substances out of the fitrate or to secrete substances into it
what layer are proximal and convoluted tubules found in?
the cortex
what layer are straight and collecting tubules found in?
the medulla
what layer has a straited appearance and what is it from?
the medulla

the straight and collecting tubules
what layer are renal pyramids, medullary rays and straight/collecting tubules found in?
what is the function of the renal pyramids?
what is found at the hilus of the renal pelvis of the kidney?
the proximal ureter, all vessels and nerves
where are the minor and major calyces found?
in the renal pelvis
how many minor calyces are in the kidney
there is one for each renal pyramid
20-25% of the cardiac output goes to the....
If an artery in the kidney is occluded, what will happen?
that portion will die, there is no collateral circulation
T/F there is collateral circulation in the kidney, like the circle of willis in the brain
renal arteries are direct branches of the _____
abdominal aorta
what arteries found in the superior or inferior poles of the kidneys are developmental remnants?
the polar arteries
what does the renal artery branch into?
lobar arteries
what do lobar arteries branch into?
interlobar arteries
where do lobar arteries branch from the renal arteries?
as they approach the hilus
what arteries pass between the renal pyramids?
interlobar arteries
what do interlobar arteries branch into when they turn 90 degrees?
arcuate arteries
what arteries are found at the junction between tthe cortex and medulla?
arcuate arteries
what do arcuate arteries branch into as they turn 90 degrees?
interlobular arteries
what arteries branch from the arcuate and enter the cortex?
the interlobular
what areteries flow into the glomerulus?
the afferent arterioles
what artery flows away from the glomerulus?
the efferent arteriole
what are the two options the blood has at the glomerulus?
cortical glomerulus

corticomedullary (juxtamedullary) glomerulus
what happens when the blood enters the cortical glomerulus?
it flows into a secodary capillary bed called the peritubular capilaries and then leave the kidneys via veins parallel to the arteries
what happens when the blood enters the corticomedullary glomerulus?
efferent arteriole contributes to capillary plexus near cortex, but also forms long straight branches called vasa recta that course down through and back up renal pyramids and then drain into parallel vein
what second capillary bed does the efferent arteriole enter after going through a cortical glomerulus?
the peritubular capillaries
what long, straight branches are formed after giong through the juxtamedullary glomerulus that course down to the medullary pyramids?
vasa recta
what is the functional unit of the kidney that receives and modifies the urine (filtrate)
the nephron
what are the 4 main components of the nephron?
renal corpuscle
proximal convoluted tubule
henle's loop
distal convoluted tubule
what are the two partes of the renal corpuscle?
the glomerulus and bowman's capsule
what is another name for the glomerular capsule?
bowman's capsule
what part of the renal corpuscle is a capillary network that receives blood via the afferent arteriole and sends it away via the efferent arteriole?
what part of the renal capsule isa cup shaped structure that surrounds the glomerulus?
Bowman's capsule
what layer of bowman's capsule contacts the glomerulus and is formed by podocyctes that limit entry to certain substances?
visceral layer
what layer of bowman's capsules is the outer layer of simple squamous epithelium that lines the capsule?
the parietal layer
what area of bowman's capsule is where substances that leaked through the filtration layers of the glomerulus and visceral layer accumulate, between the visceral and parietal layers of bowman's capsule?
the urinary (capsular) space
where does most of the water of the filtrate get reabsorbed? by what process?
in the proximal convoluted tubule

osmosis (passive)
where does active reabsorbtion of many molecules (ions, amino acids, etc.) occur?
proximal convoluted tubule
where does secretion of large or highly charged particles occur in the nephron?
in the proximal convoluted tubule
which part of the nephron goes down into the medulla
henle's loop
in which limb of henle's loop does the reabsorption of Na, Cl and water occur?
descending limb
which limb of henle's loop is impermeable to water, but Na and Cl are moved to interstitium?
ascending limb
when does the distal convoluted tubule begin?
when the ascending limb contacts the renal corpuscle
what part of the kidney receives the urine from many nephrons and releases it into a minor calyx?
collecting tubules/ducts
papillary duct
what hormone controls absorbtion in the collecting tubules, minor calyx, etc.?
ADH antidiuretic hormone
what organ carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder?
what kind of muscle is found in the ureter?
smooth muscle
how many sites of narrowing does the ureter have?
3--renal pelvis, pelvic rim, at ureterovascicular junction
what is the ureterovesicular junction? (UVJ)
where the ureter enters the bladder
what stores the urine>
what delivers urine from the bladder to the outside?
what sphincter of the urethra is controled by smooth muscle and found between the bladder an Urethra?
internal sphincter
what sphincter of the urethra is found at the urogential diaphragm and is under voluntary control?
the external sphincter
what is the function of the sypmathetic innervation on the bladder?
relaxes it so it can fill up but keeps the internal sphincter tight
what is the function of the parasympathetic nervous system on the bladder?
when you need to go it stimulates the detressor to contract and the internal sphincter to relax
what are the paired organs found in the scrotum of a male that funtion in spermogenisis?
what is the "white coat" of connective tissue that covers the testes, and is the most internal?
tunica albuginea
what covering of the testes is a double layer that is external to the tunica alburginea?
tunica vaginalis
what muscle is continuous with the external oblique and controls the environment of the testes so that they have the right temperature?
the cremaster
what stores the spermatozoan?
the epidiymus
what tube exits the epididymus?
the vas deferens
what arteries supply the testes?
internal/external pudenal aa.
inferior epigastric a.
testicular (gonadal) a.
which arteriole is a branch off of the internal illiac artery, the internal or external pudenal aa.?
internal pudenal aa
what tube exits the epididymus?
the vas deferens
what arteriole is a branch of the internal illiac artery, the internal or external pudenal aa.?
what arteriole is a branch of the femoral artery, the internal or external pudenal aa.?
what artery does the inferior epigastric artery branch off of?
external iliac artery
what does the testicular artery branch off of?
descending abdominal aorta
what tubes till the tests?
seminiferous tubules
what cells produce testosterone?
interstitial cells of Leydig
what cells are supporting cells and nurture the formation of sperm cells?
sustentacular (sertoli) cells
what stage is the sperm at if the stem cell has just become a spermatocite and then becomes a spermatide?
what stage is the sperm cell at if the spermatide matures into a spermatozoan?
at what stage does the spermatazoan lose the attacment and is released to the lumen?
what part of the sperm cell is the nucleus and acrosome (enzyme to break down egg) found?
what part of the sperm cell houses the mitochondria?
the middle peice
what accessory gland contributes the most to the semen production?
the seminal vesicle (60%)
what are the accessory gland that produce the rest of the semen?
seminal vesicle, prostate gland
bulbourethral gland
what connects the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to the prostate gland?
the ejaculatory duct
what tissue is erectile tissue filled with blood vessels in the penis?
corpora cavernosa
what erectile tissue contains the penile urethra?
the corpus spongiosum
what is the name for the tip of the penis?
what is prepuce?
the foreskin of the penis
what is contained in the spermatic cord?
testicular a. and v.
vas deferens
pampiniform plexus of veins
lymphatic vessels
what is the name of the plexus of veins in the spermatic cord?
what nerves are housed in the spermatic cord?
illiohypogastic n.
illiofemoral n/
what ligament connects the overies to the uterus?
ovarian ligament
what ligament connects the overies to the pelvic wall, suspending it superiorly?
the suspensory ligament
what white connective tissue covers the ovaries?
the tunica albuginea
what is the ovarian artery a branch of and what ligament does it course with/
descending aorta

suspensory ligament
what is the function of the fallopian tube?
it permits passage of an ovum from the peritoneal cavity to the uterus
what is the most narrow segment of the fallopian tube that is closest to the uterus?
the isthmus
what is the middle section of the fallopian tubes?
what is the wider part of the fallopian tube that is closest to the ovaries?
the infindibulum
what are the fingerlike extentions on the infindibulum that "catch" the egg?
what ligament covers all of the ovaries, other ligaments, fallopian tubes?
broad ligament
what is the organ in which the fertilized egg will implant?
what is the organization of the uterus?
what is the recess around the cervix called?
what is the outer layer of connective tissue found in the uterus?
what is the smooth muscle wall layer in the uterus?
what is the inner wall of the uterus, in which the functional and basilar zone are found?
the endometrium
what layer of the endometruim is shed along with the spiral arteries during menstration?
functional zone
what ligament passes through the Inguinal canal in females?
round ligament
what artery does the uterine aa. come of of ?
the internal iliac
where are the arcuate aa. found within the uterus?
within the myometrium
where are the straight aa. found within the uterus?
basilar zone
where are the spiral aa. found within the uterus
functional zone
what is the musculomembranous canal that extends from the cervix to the vestibule of external genitalia?
what is the name of the fat pad found over the pubis bone?
mon pubis
what is the out lip of the external female genitalia?
labia majora
what is the inner lip of the female ext. genitalia?
labia minora
what glands produce the secretion that lubricates the female genitalia?
vestibular glands
which muscle in the urogenital triangle starts at the collagen sheath at the base of penis/clitoris and extends to the central tendon of the perineum?
which muscle of the urogenital triangle goes from the ischial tuberosity to the symphysis pubis anterior to the base of penis/clitoris?
which muscle of the urogenital triangle goes from the ischial ramus to median raphe of urogenital diaphragm?
deep transverse perineus
which muscle surrounds the urethra?
the urethral sphincter
what triangle do the coccygeus, anal sphincter and levator ani make up?
anal triangle
what muscle of the anal triangle extends from the ischial spine to the lateral sacrum?
what muscle is made of the iliococcygeus and pubococcygeus?
levator ani
what branch of the common hepatic artery divides in to left and right branches and supplies the liver?
the proper hepatic
what is the really strong layer of smooth muscle in the digestive system?
muscularis externa
what part of the nephron are bicarbonate ions reabsorbed and ammonium ion and hydrogen ions secreted, and blood pressure controled?
in the distal convoluted tubule
which layer of the digestive tractis the entry point for veins/arteries and lymphatic vessels?
what ligament holds the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and divides it into two lobes?
the falciform ligament