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23 Cards in this Set

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Over There
Song written by George M. Cohan the day after Congress declared war on the Central Powers. The patriotic tune swept the nation and expressed American confidence.
European tensions erupt
Europe explodes into war in 1914 following the assasination of Archduke Ferdinand from Austria
Harlem Hell Fighters
369th US Infantry comprised of African-American soldiers attached to French Army. Unit spent more time under fire than any other American unit.
Zimmermann telegram
A secret note instructing Germany's foreign secretary, Authur Zimmermann, to urge Mexico to attack the US in return for help winning back the "lost provinces" in the southwest that the US had taken possesion of. Its discovery caused anti-German sentiment in the US to soar.
Militarism

Marshall Ferdinand Foch
Militarism was one of the four main causes of WWI. Policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war.

Allies turned the tide of the war, under the command of Foch, a Frenchman, the Allies took the offensive. Americans then puahed into the Argonne Forest.
Rival Alliances

Russian Revolution

Reparations
Rival alliances were one of the four main causes of WWI (Central Powers v. Allied Powers). Posed a great danger resulting in minor incidences sparking major wars.

Czar Nicholas II of Russia was driven from power in early 1917.

Monetary penalty imposed on Germany for losses Europe suffered during the war.
Imperialism

Influenza epidemic
Imperialism was one of four main causes of WWI.

Between 1918 and 1919, more than 500,000 Americans died as a result of an influenza edpidemic that spread around the world putting the total death toll in the millions.
Pacifist

Propaganda
Pacifists were people who didn't believe in war as a means of settling conficts. Automaker Henry Ford sailed on a peace mission and organized peace commissioners to end fighing.

Propaganda was a means of deliberately spreading ideas that helped or hurt a specific cause. Used to shape public opinion.
U-Boats - German submarines
Underwater German ships that attacked any ship that entered or left British ports, such as the Lusitania
Versailles Treaty
Treaty signed after WWI under which Germany had to accept blame for war, disarm completely, give up colonies, and pay reparations. Treaty included Wilson's "League of Nations."
Selective Service Act

Stalemate
A law requiring all young men ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft.

A situation in which neither side is strong enough to win against the other, prolonging a war.
Trench warfare
Type of warfare in which soldiers fire at one another from trenches dug into the ground.
President Wilson

War Industries Board

Women at work
Initially kept the US out of the war. Felt that keeping the world "safe for democracy" was more important than neutrality.

Government agency formed which told factories what they had to produce and divided up limited resources during wartime.

Women rushed into the labor force in huge numbers to fill vacancies left by men who enlisted.
Democracy

Dog fights
United States neutrality was overridden by Wilson's promise to make the world "safe for democracy."

WWI was the first conflict where aerial fighting was utilized.
Fourteen Points

Four Minute Men
Plan outlined by President Wilson meant to prevent international problems from causing another war, included: end to secrecy, free trade, limited arms, peasceful conflict resolution, self-determination, formation of the League of Nations.

Government sponsored speakers who gave 4 minute speeches(propaganda)urging Americans to sacrifce for freedom and democracy.
Great War

General John J. Pershing
Another name for WWI

US general who insisted that his troops operate as independent units while fighting in Europe on the side of the Allied Powers.
Jailing critics
US Congress passed laws making it a crime to criticize the government or to interfere with the war effort. Nearly 1,600 men and women were arrested.
Kaiser
German emperor. In 1914 he sent his troops into war predicting that they "would be home before the leaves fall from the trees."
Lusitania

Liberty Bonds

League of Nations
German submarine torpedoed the Lusitania on May 7, 1915. 1,200 people died, including 128 Americans. Wilson referred to the incident as "murder on the high seas"

Bonds sold to Americans as a way of lending money to the government to pay for the war. $21 billion raised.

Wilson's most important goal and the last of his fourteen points. A general association of nations to protect the independence of all nations, big or small.
Nationalism

Neutrality

November 11, 1918
Nationalism was one of the four main causes of WWI. Encouraged unity among people with a common language and culture. Sought to overthrow foriegn rule.

Neutrality was the official position the US first adopted towards the conflict in Europe. A trade imbalance and growing public opinion and propaganda gave way to support of the Allies.

Date that WWI ended.
Archduke Ferdinand

Allied Powers
Assasination of Archduke Ferdinand on June 28, 1914, in Sarajevo, sparks WWI

Allied Powers were comprised of France, Britain, and Russia
Brest-Livossk Treaty

Bolsheviks
Treaty signed between Russia and Germany in March 1918. Treaty allowed Bolshevik leader, V.I. Lenin, to focus on second Russian revolution

Bolsheviks gained power in Russia and wanted to bring about a communist revolution.
Central Powers

Causes of WWI
Central Powers were comprised of Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire

Causes of WWI - Imperialism, Nationalism, Militarism, and formation of rival alliances (Triple Alliance v. Triple Entente)