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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the most polymorphic genes in the genome?
MHC
Size of peptide binding cleft for Class I MHC molecule
8-11 amino acid residues
Size of peptide binding cleft for Class II MHC molecule
10-30 amino acid residues
Components of fully assembled class I MHC molecule
alpha chain, beta2 chain, bound antigenic peptide (stable expression requires all 3 components)
True or false: multiple peptides compete with one another for binding to the single binding site of each MHC molecule.
True
How many different MHC molecules can an individual have?
Up to 26 (6 class I and 10-20 class II)
True or false: The association of antigenic peptides and MHC molecules has a very fast off-rate.
False: slow off-rate
True or false: MHC molecules can discriminate between self and foreign antigens.
False: MHC molecules display both self and foreign antigens. T-cells survey these displayed peptides for the presence of foreign antigen.
What is the theory behind why there is so much polymorphism in the MHC genes?
The presence of multiple MHC alleles provides an evolutionary advantage for the entire population.
Where is TAP gene located?
Chromosome 6, within class II MHC.
Function of TAP
Transporter protein that moves cytosolic peptides into the ER, where the peptides can associate with Class I MHC molecules.
Location of proteasome gene
chromosome 6, within class II MHC cluster
Function of proteasome
degrade cytosolic proteins into peptides that are subsequently presented by class I MHC molecules
Location of HLA-DM genes
chromosome 6, within class II MHC cluster (HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB)
Function of HLA-DM protein
peptide binding to class II MHC molecules
Proteins encoded in class III region of MHC
TNF, LT-alpha, LT-beta, heat shock proteins
Location of HLA-G gene
Class I region of MHC
Function of HLA-G protein
Class IB; antigen recognition by NK cells
Location of HLA-H gene
Class I region of MHC
Function of HLA-H protein
Class IB; iron metabolism; no known immune system function
Gene conversion
A portion of the sequence of one gene is replaced with a portion of another gene without a reciporcal recombination event; responsible for the extraordinary polymorphism of MHC molecules
5 cytokines that increase Class I MHC expression
IFN-alpha, INF-beta, IFN-gamma, TNF, LT
Principal cytokine involved in stimulating class II MHC expression
IFN-gamma
CIITA
class II transcription activator; synthesized in response to IFN-gamma