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7 Cards in this Set

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shaping
using differential reinforcement to produce a series of gradually changing response classes; each response class is a successive approximation toward a terminal behavior. Members of an existing response class are selected for differential reinforcement because they more closely resemble the terminal behavior.
differential reinforcement
Reinforcing only those responses within a response class that meet a specific criterion along some dimension(s) (i.e. frequency, topography, duration, latency, or magnitude) and placing all other responses in the class on extinction.
clicker training
a term popularized by Pryor (1999) for shaping behavior using conditioned reinforcement in the form of an auditory stimulus. A handheld device produces a click sound when pressed. The trainer pairs other forms of reinforcement (e.g. edible treats) with the click sound so that the sound becomes a conditioned reinforcer.
response differentiation
A behavior change produced by differential reinforcement: Reinforced members of the current response class occur with greater frequency, and unreinforced members occur less frequently (undergo extinction); the overall result is the emergence of a new response class
successive approximation
The sequence of new response classes that emerge during the shaping process as the result of differential reinforcement; each successive response class is closer in form to the terminal behavior than the response class it replaces
fading
A procedure for transferring stimulus control in which features of an antecedent stimulus (e.g., shape, size, position, color) controlling a behavior are gradually changed to a new stimulus while maintaining the current behavior; stimulus features can be faded in (enhanced) or faded out (reduced).
terminal behavior
the end product of shaping