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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Describe three features of bird bones which design them for flight?
thin brittle cortices
wide medullas
some pneumatised with air
What type of bone acts as calcium store?
Medullary Bone
What is the name for the avian mandible?
Gnathotheca
What is the name for the avian maxilla?
Rhinotheca
What is the Rhamphtheca?
Gnathotheca + Rhinotheca
What facial feature may be prone to infection?
Sinus Infection: Large paranasal sinus which communicate with nasal cavity. Makes them light.
What are the names for the two fused areas of vertebrae?
The notarium (fused thoracic)
Th synscrum (fused thoracic, lumbar and sacral + caudal)
What marks the end of the spinal column where the tail attaches?
The pygostyle
What is the name for the avian sternum?
The keel
Where do the pectoral muscles attach for flight?
The keel
What makes up the thoracic girdle?
Scapula (attached to ribs)
Clavicle (wishbone)
Coracoid
What is the function of the coracoid?
Supports the wing
Define the pelvic girdle
the synscarcrum, ilium, ischium and pubis
How are the avian limbs modified?
Tibia is fused to tarsus and metatarsal bnes
What does pamprodactyl mean?
Four digits
What does zygodactyl mean?
Two digits
What does anisodactyl mean?
Three digits
What is the name for the feather tracts?
Pterylae
What is the name for a featherless tract?
Apteria
Describe the structure of a feather
Hollow shaft and base and Vane containing barbs
How many typse of feather are there?
7
What controls feather pigmentation?
Melanin and Diet
How often do birds moult?
1-2times a year
What is the name of the most important skin gland?
Uropygial gland - secretes sebaceous material for feather protection and waterproofing
How do birds handle changes in atmospheric pressure?
Cannot close off the eustacian tube
What is important about UV light?
Part of the visual spectrum and needed for vitamin D synthesis.
What is the flicker frequency of birds?
200fps
Which bird does not have a crop?
Owl
What do birds who eat whole prey produce?
Cast
What does the proventriculus do?
First secretory stomach - acts mechanically to grind food
What is the syrinx?
Where the avian trachea bifurcates - modified cartilage capable of vibration
How many air sacs do birds have?
9
Where does gas exchange occur mainly?
parapulmonic bronchi
What is special about bird red blood cells?
Nucleated
What is the lifespan of avian red blood cells?
30-45day
What is a heterophil?
The most abundant leukocyte in birds
What clinical condition may be associated with avian kidney problems?
Lameness - spinal nerves and sacral plexus run through the kidney parenchyma.
How many kidney divisions are there?
3 Cranial, Middle and Caudal
What kind of nephrons do birds have?
Mammalian and Reptilian
Where else can birds re-absorb water?
Colon and caecae by reverse peristalsis
Which ovary is functional in birds?
Left
Where can birds store sperm?
Uterovaginal junction