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456 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
abduction
movement of a body part away from a midline
adduction
Movement of a body part toward a midline
Anatomic Position
the universal position of the human body from which all body positions are described
caudad
toward the feet
cephalad
situated toward the head
dorsal
located posteriorly on the body relative to the coronal plane.
frontal plane
a plane parallel to the anterior surface of the body
microscopic anatomy
the study of tissue structure and/or cellular structure or organization
pathophysiology
the study of body functions of a living organism in an abnormal state
prone
lying face down
active transport
movement of a chemical by the use of energy through a gradient, such as a cell membrane, in concentration or electrical potential. This is opposite normal diffusion.
antecubital fossa
the anterior surface at the bend of the elbow
basement membrane
the non-cellular layer in the epithelial tissue that secures the overlying epithelial tissues
centrioles
organelles that are essential in cell division
chromosomes
structures containing DNA within the cell's nucleus. Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes
coelom
a fluid filled body cavity that contains organs and connective tissue
concentration gradient
the difference in concentrations of a substance on either side of a selectively permeable membrane
crenation
shrinkage of a cell that results when too much water leaves the cell through osmosis
cytoplasm
a viscous liquid matrix that supports all internal cellular structures and provides a medium for intercellular transport. Also called protoplasm
dendrite
a component of the nerve cell that receives electrical impulses and conducts them toward the cell body
diffusion
movement of particles and solutes from an area of high concentration to low concentration
diploid
the two sets of 23 chromosomes, one set donated by each parent, found in all cells, except sperm and ova cells, which only contain a total of 23 chromosomes.
electrolytes
salt or acid substances that become ionic conductors when dissolved in a solvent (ie water). Chemicals dissolved in the blood
endocytosis
the uptake of material through the cell membrane-bound droplet or vesicle formed within formed within the cell's protoplasm
endoplasmic reticulum
a series of membranes in which proteins and fats are manufactured
exocytosis
the release of secretions from cells that have been accumulated in vesicles
facilitated diffusion
process whereby a carrier molecule moves substances in and out of cells from areas of higher to lower concentration
filtration
a process of movement of water out of plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space
girdles
bony belts that attach the limbs to the body
Golgi Complex
a set of membranes in the protoplasm involved in the formation of sugars and complex proteins
haploid
sperm or egg cell (23 chromosomes)
hydrostatic pressure
blood pressure in the vessel walls created by the heart beating pushes the water out of the capillary into the interstitial space
HHNC
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic nonketotic Coma- a diabetic emergency that occurs from a relative insulin deficiency, resulting in marked hyperglycemia but there is an absence of ketones and acidosis
Hypertonic
a solution with an osmotic pressure greater than that of body fluid (a cell placed in the solution will shrink)
hypotonic
a solution with an osmotic pressure less than that of body fluid (a cell placed in the solution will swell)
ICF
intracellular fluid where most of the body's supply of potassium is contained
ion channel
protein-lined pores or transport channels, specifically sized for each substance, which allow for electrolyte movements among the cells
mediastinum
the space between the lungs, in the center of the chest, that contains the heart, trachea, mainstem bronchi, part of the esophagus, and large blood vessels
microtubules
hollow filamentous structures that make up various components of the cell
myoclonus
abnormal and persistent muscle spasms
neuroglia
collectively, the name for the connective and supporting tissues of the nervous tissue
neuron
the main functional unit of the nervous system
nonstriated
smooth muscle tissue
nucleoli
rounded, dense structures in the protoplasm that contain RNA and synthesize proteins
oncotic force
an opposing pressure to hydrostatic pressure. It pulls water back into the capillary from the interstitial space in an effort to create balance
osmosis
the movement of a solvent, such as water, from an area of LOW solute concentration to one of HIGH concentration through a selectively permeable membrane to equalize concentrations of a solute on both sides of the membrane
osmotic pressure
the measure of the tendency of water to move by osmosis across a membrane
oxidative metabolism
(aerobic) process in which oxygen is used chemically to produce energy from carbohydrates
pericardial effusion
an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac
pericardial tamponade
a condition that occurs as fluid accumulates around the heart which restricts the heart's stroke volume
periosteum
the membrane that covers the bones of the skull and all other bones, except at joints
peripheral nerves
the nerves that extend from the brain and the spinal cord to various parts of the body by exiting between the vertebrae of the spine
phagocytosis
endocytosis involving solid particles
pinocytosis
endocytosis involving liquid
pleural effusion
an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
popliteal fossa
the space behind the knee
remodeling
replacing dead cells with new cells on an ongoing basis
retroperitoneal organs
the organs (the kidneys, pancreas, duodenum, and major vessels in the retroperitoneal space
ribosomes
organelles that contain RNA and protein
serum osmolality
the number of osmotically active particles in serum
Na K exchange pump
a mechanism that uses active transport to move sodium out of the cells and potassium into the cells
solutes
particles. such as salts, that are dissolved in a solvent
spindle fibers
microtubules radiating from the centrioles
acromioclavicular separation
one or more torn ligaments in the AC joint, resulting in a separated shoulder
alveolar ridge
the ridges between the teeth, which are covered with thickened connective tissue and epithelium
anulus fibrosus
a ring of fibrous or fibrocartilaginous tissue that is part of the intervertebral disk
appositional growth
the formation of new bone on the surface of a bone
auditory ossicles
the bones that function with hearing and are located deep within the cavities of the temporal bone. malleus, incus, stapes
blowout fracture
a fracture to the floor of the orbit usually caused by a blow to the eye
bursa
a small fluid filled sac that cushions and protects the joint
callus
the zone of repair in which a mass of exudates and connective tissue forms around a break in a bone and converts to bone during healing
canaliculi
a minute canal in a bone
cancellous bone
a bone that is made up of a lacy network of bony rods
carpal tunnel syndrome CTS
compression of the median nerve within the wrist
central disk herniation
the most serious disk rupture that occurs when nuclear material protrudes straight back into the spinal cord, possibly resulting in permanent loss of bladder and bowel control
chondroblast
a cell that produces cartilage
costochondritis
inflammation of the costocartilage, which attaches the ribs to the sternum
cribriform plate
a horizontal bone perforated with numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve filaments from the nasal cavity
dentin
the principle mass of the tooth, which is made up of a material that is much stronger than bone
crista galli
a prominent bony ridge in the center of the anterior fossa of the cribriform plate to which meninges are attached
endochondral growth
the growth of cartilage in the epiphyseal plate, which is eventually replaced by bone
endosteum
the lining of an inner surface of a long bone
epicondylitis
tennis elbow- an inflammation of the muscles of the elbow joint
facet
a smooth, flat circumscribed anatomic surface of a bone
fibroblast
a cell that secretes proteins and collagen to form connective tissue between broken bone ends
glenoid fossa
the part of the scapula that forms the socket in the shoulder
greenstick fracture
an incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent and only the outer arc of the bend is broken.
haversian system
a unit of compact bone consisting of a tube (haversian canal) with the laminae of bone that surrounds it
hydroxyapatite
a mineral compound containing calcium and phosphate that, along with collagen, comprises the structural element of the bone
hyoid bone
the bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles
lacuna
one of the minute cavities in bone or cartilage occupied by osteocytes
lambdoid suture
the point where the occipital bones attach to the parietal bones
lamellae
thin sheets or layers into which bone tissue is organized
medullary cavity
the internal cavity of the diaphysis of a long bone that contains bone marrow
metaphysis
the area of a long bone where the diaphysis and epiphysis converge
osteoblast
bone forming cell
osteoclast
large, multi-nucleated cell that dissolve bone tissue and play a large role in bone remodeling
osteocyte
an osteoblast that becomes surrounded by a bony matrix
osteogenisis imperfecta
a genetic disorder in which the patient lacks sufficient collagen for proper strength of the bones
osteomyelitis
an inflammation of the bone usually resulting from bacterial infection
osteon
unit within the compact bone in which blood vessels are located; also called the haversian system
palatine bone
an irregularly shaped bone found in the posterior part of the nasal cavity
pedicle
the foot of each vertebra in the vertebral arch
physis
the major site of bone elongation; also called the growth plate
rami
the posterior vertical parts of the lower jaw that join the mandible
rickets
an uncommon disease of vitamin d deficiency. mostly in peds.
sella turcica
a depression in the middle of the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located
trabeculae
bony rods that make up cancellous bone and are oriented to increase weight bearing capacity of long bones
actin myofilament
a cellular protein found in myofilaments
action potential
a change in electrical potential that occurs when a cell or tissue has been activated by a stimulus
adductor brevis
the short muscle that adducts the thigh
adductor longus
the long muscle that adducts the hips
Bell's palsy
a condition caused by trauma or infection to the facial nerve, resulting in an inability to move the facial muscles on the affected side
calmodulin
an intracellular protein that calcium binds to, resulting in muscle contraction
compartment
an anatomic space within the body that is enclosed by a fascia
compartment syndrome
an accumulation of blood or fluid in an anatomic compartment, typically following trauma, resulting in compression of blood vessels and tissue damage secondary to ischemia and, if not recognized and properly treated, death of muscle and loss of limb
endomysium
the delicate connective tissue surrounding individual muscle fibers
fascia
a fibrous connective tissue outside the epimysium that separates individual muscles
intercalated disks
branching fibers in cardiac muscle that allow action potentials to pass from cell to cell
muscle fasciculus
a bundle of muscle cells boud together by connective tissue and forming one of the constituent elements of a muscle
myofibrils
threadlike structures that extend from one end of the muscle fiber to the next
myofilaments
the individual protein filaments, actin and myosin
myoglobin
an iron containing red pigment, similar to hemoglobin, found in muscle cells
neurotransmitter
a chemical substance that transmits a nerve impulse across a synapse
perimysium
the connective tissue sheath that surrounds the muscle and forms sheaths for the bundles of muscle fibers.
sarcomeres
any of the repeating structural units
sarcoplasmic reticulum
a system of membranes that transport materials in muscle cells
scalene muscles
muscles of respiration that elevate the first two ribs during inspiration
thompson's test
a test used to evaluate the integrity of the achille's tendon fo possible rupture
Yergason's test
Supination of the forearm against resistance to evaluate whether a patient has bicipital tendinitis
agranulocytes
leukocytes that lack granules including Monocytes(1st line of defense w/ macrophages in the inflammatory process. Monocytes migrate out of the blood and into the tissues in response to an infection) and lymphocytes (originate in bone marrow but migrate through the blood to the lymphatic tissues)
alpha effect
stimulation of alpha receptors that result in vasoconstriction
antibodies
proteins within plasma that react with antigens
antigens
substances on the surface of erythrocytes that are recognized by the immune system
arteriosclerosis
the deposition of calcium in the arterial walls that result in a loss of elasticity and comcomitant reduction in blood flow
afterload
the pressure in the aorta against which the left ventricle must pump blood
atherosclerosis
a disorder characterized by the formation of plaques and materials, mostly lipids and cholesterol ON the inner arterial walls
baroroceptors
pressure sensors in the blood vessels, kidneys brain, and heart
basophils
the least common of all granulocytes, important in both allergic and inflammatory reactions
beta effect
a stimulation of beta receptors resulting in increased, inotropic, dromotropic, and chronotropic effects
bruit
an abnormal "whooshing" sound indicating chaotic blood flow within a blood vessel
cardiac tamponade
a life threatening state of shock that develops as a result of large pericardial effusion
carotid sinus
a slight dilatation in the carotid bifurcation that contains structures that are important in the regulation of blood pressure(chemoreceptors and baroreceptors)
chemoreceptors
receptors in the blood vessels (carotid sinus, aortic arch), kidneys, brain, and heart
circle of willis
an interconnection of the anterior cerebral arteries and the anterior communicating artery, which forms an important role of collateral circulation to the brain
conductivity
the ability of cardiac cells to conduct electrical impulses
contractility
the strength of heart muscle contraction
coronary sinus
veins that collect blood that is returning from the walls of the heart
cusps
the flaps that comprise the heart valves
depolarization
the process of electrical discharge and flow of electrical activity from a cell
diapedesis
a process whereby leukocytes leave blood vessels to move toward tissue where they are needed most
dromotropic state
related to the control of the heart's conduction rate
endocarditis
infection of the heart valve
eosinophils
granulocytes that contain granules that stain bright red with acidic stain, eosin, and function in the body's ALLERGIC response
epinephrine
a naturally occuring hormone with greater stimulatory effect on beta cells, also a cardiac drug
erythroblastosis fetalis
a serious condition that results when a pregnant woman's blood type is incompatible with the fetus' blood and antibodies from the mother enter the fetal circulation and destroy the fetus' RBC's
erythropoiesis
the process by which red blood cells are made
excitability
a property of cardiac cells that provides the cells with the ability to respond to electrical impulses
fibrin
a white insoluble protein formed in the clotting process
granulocytes
a type of leukocyte that has large cytoplasmic granules that are easily seen with a light microscope. (Neutrophils-destroy bacteria, Eosinophils-functions in ALLERGIC response, Basophils- least common, play a role in Allergic and Inflammatory
heparin
a substance found in large amounts in basophils that inhibits blood clotting
hepatic portal system
a specialized part of the venous system that drains blood from the liver, stomach, intestines, and spleen.
histamine
a substance found in large amounts in basophils that increases tissue inflammation
inotropic state
related to the strength of the heart's contraction
ischemia
insufficient oxygen at a particular tissue site associated with obstruction of arterial blood flow to the site
lymphocytes
the smallest agranulocytes, the originate in the blood marrow but migrate through the blood to the lymphatic tissue
macrophages
cells that are responsible for protecting the body against infection
mesenteric angina
pain caused by partial occlusion of the mesenteric artery from atherosclerosis
mesenteric infarction
blockage of a portion of the mesenteric artery resulting in necrosis of a portion of the bowel
neutrophils
one of three types of granulocytes have multi-lobed nuclei that resemble a string of baseballs held together by a thin strand of thread they DESTROY BACTERIA, ANTIGEN_ANTIBODY COMPLEXES< and FOREIGN MATTER
norepinephrine
a naturally occuring hormone with a greater stimulatory effect on Alpha Receptors
monocytes
agranulocytes that migrate out of the blood and into the tissues in response to an infection
pericardial effusion
a condition often caused by trauma in which the pericardial sac fills with too much fluid, hampering the hearts ability to expand and contract properly
pericardiocentesis
a life saving procedure to correct cardiac tamponade, a needle is inserted into the pericardial sac to remove excess fluid
phlebitis
inflammatory condition involving veins, often associated with thrombus formation within the vein
plasmin
an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin in blood clots
polarized cell
the state of the resting cell, which normally has a net negative charge with respect to the outside of the cell
Raynaud's phenomenon
spasms that develop in the digital arteries particularly following emotional stress or cold exposure, resulting in white or cool fingerprints
rheumatic fever
an acute condition that affects children and young adults and may result in permanent damage to the aortic and mitral valves
saphenous vein
the longest vein in the body, it drains the leg the thigh and the dorsum of the foot
sinusoids
a part of the hepatic portal system in which blood collect in the liver and the liver cells extract nutrients from the blood, filter the blood, and metabolize various drugs
sodium potassium pump
a molecular (ion-transporting) mechanism whereby sodium is actively moved out of a cell and potassium is moved in
thrombi
blood clots
thrombin
an enzyme that causes the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, which binds to the platelet plug
anaphylaxis
a severe reaction to an antigen that occurs after sensitization from a prior exposure to the same antigen
antibody-mediated (humoral) immunity
one of two types of specific immunity that exist in the body, it is primarily mediated by B cells; also called humoral immunity
antigen
a substance foreign to the body
axillary nodes
a large collection of lymh nodes located in the armpit
basophil
a white blood cell that may play a role following infection of various areas of the body
CD4 Antigen
a protein found on the surface of T helper cells that is adversely affected by exposure to HIV
cell-mediated immunity
one of two types of specific immunity that exists in the body, it is primarily mediated by T cells
chemotaxis
the process of the migration of leukocytes in the blood toward areas of bacterial invasion, foreign body, or infection
diffuse lymphatic tissue
tissue with no clear boundary that blends with surrounding tissues and contains lymphocytes and other cells
e coli
Escherichia coli, normal flora or bacteria found in the gastrointestinal tract that aids in digestion and absorption of food, as well as metabolization of waste products
eosinophil
a leukocyte that may play a role following infection in various parts of the body
hapten
a small molecule that will not evoke a specific immune response unless it is combined with other serum proteins, in which case, a severe reaction
lymph
a thin plasma-like liquid formed from interstitial or extracellular fluid that bathes the tissues of the body
lymphadenitis
inflammation of a lymph node caused by infection
lymphadenopathy
any swelling of lymph nodes with or without pain
lymphangitis
an infection that spreads beyond the local area into a lymphatic vessel causing red streaks to run from the the infected area proximally
lymphatic duct
one of two great lymph vessels it empties into the subclavian vein
lymphokines
complex proteins produced by T effector cells that recruit mast cells and other nonspecific inflammatory mediators to aid in destruction of antigens
macrophages
cells that leave the blood and enter diseased tissues after the neutrophils and are responsible for the later stages of fighting infection, including the disposal of dead bacteria
mast cell
a large white blood cell that mediates allergic reactions and play a roll following infection of various areas in the body
metastasize
the spreading of a desease from one part of the body to another, especially w/ cancer
neutrophils
usually the first cells to enter the infected tissues, they ingest materials through phagocytosis
nonspecific immunity
an immune response that is predictable each time the body is exposed to a particular challenge
specific immunity
the immune response to a given substance that is faster and stronger after each subsequent exposure
T effector cells
the cells that carry out most of the cell mediated immune functions by seeking and destroying foreign materials, such as viruses, fungi, bacteria, and particles
T Helper cells
cells that aid the T effector cells in carrying out cell-mediated immune functions
T memory cells
the form into which T cells differentiate when activated by an antigen, The T memory cells remain within the body, ready to respond to a second challenge
T-suppressor cells
cells that suppress the actions of the T effector cells by limiting the specific immune response
thoracic duct
one of two great lymph vessels, it empties into the superior vena cava
carina
the projection of the lowest portion of the trachea
conchae
three bony ridges contained within the lateral walls of the nasopharynx
diffusion (respiratory)
the process by which a gas dissolves in a liquid
hilum
the point of entry for the bronchi, vessels and nerves into each lung
lingula
the small portion of the left lung that is equivalent of the middle lobe in the right lung
pleura
membranes of connective tissue that cover the lungs and line the inner borders of the rib cage
primary respiratory acidosis
decrease in the blood pH secondary to insufficient exhalation of CO2
primary respiratory alkalosis
increase in the blood pH secondary to excessive exhalation
respiratory center
the part of the brain located in the medulla oblongata that controls respiratory stimulus
spirometer
a device used in pulmonary function testing that measures air entering and leaving the lungs over a specific period of time
vital capacity
the amount of air moved in and out of the lungs with maximum inspiration and exhalation
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter secreted by the autonomic nervous system
acetylcholinesterase
an enzyme that rapidly destroys acetylcholine once it reaches target tissues
adrenergic
description of a neuron that secretes the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
afferent (sensory) nerves
nerves that carry impulses from the body to the brain
Ascending RAS
several structures located throughout the brain stem that are responsible for maintenance of consciousness
basal ganglia
structures located deep within the cerebrum, diencephalon, and midbrain that play an important role in coordination of motor movements and posture
beta-blocker
a common class of cardiac drugs that blocks beta effects, causing a decrease in the workload of the heart by reducing the speed of contraction as well as reducing blood pressure
brachial plexus
the plexus of spinal nerves that consists of nerves C5 to T1 and innervates the shoulder and upper extremity
cerebellar peduncles
one of three bands of nerve fibers through which the cerebellum communicates with other regions of the cns
cholinergic
description of a neuron that secretes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
corticospinal tracts
ascending fiber tracts that coordinate movements, especially of the hands
cranial nerves
the 12 pairs of nerves that arise from the base o the brain
curare
an agent that blocks transmission of neural motor impulses at the neuromuscular junction
efferent (descending) nerve fibers
fibers that carry motor impulses from the brain to the fibers of the peripheral nervous system
frontal lobe
the portion of the brain that is responsible for voluntary motor actions and personality traits
ganglia
a collection of nerve body cells located outside the CNS
ganglionic synapse
a separation between two nerves (preganglionic and postganglionic neurons), in a series between the CNS and the organs innervated
gyri
the numerous folds in the cerebrum, which greatly increase the surface area of the cortex
hypothalamus
the most inferior portion of the diencephalon, it s responsible for the control of many bodily functions, including heart rate, digestion, sexual development, temperature regulation, emotion, hunger, thirst, and regulation of the sleep wake cycle
limbic system
structures within the cerebrum and diencephalon that influence emotions, motivation, mood, and sensations of pain and pleasure
medulla
the inferior portion of the midbrain which serves as a conduction pathway for both ascending and descending nerve tracts
muscarinic receptors
receptors at the target tissue that are stimulated by acetylcholine and can also be stimulated in the laboratory by stimulation of muscarine mushrooms
myelin sheath
a membrane formed by schwann cells which covers the axons of certain (white) neurons
neuroeffector cells
the target tissues of the autonomic system
neuroglia
one of two basic types of neural tissue, neuroglia support, protect, defend, and aid in the repair of nervous tissue
neurotransmitter
chemicals produced by the body that stimulate electrical reacton in adjacent neurons
oculomotor nerve (III)
the cranial nerve that innervates the muscles that cause motion of the eyeballs and upper lid
parietal lobe
the portion of the brain that is the site for reception and evaluation of most sensory information
plexus
an organized intermingling formed by several nerves
proprioception
information about he body's position and it's parts in relation to itself, to one another and the pull of gravity
spinal reflex arcs
automatic reactions to stimuli that occur without conscious thought
substantia nigra
a layer of gray matter located in the midbrain, lt makes dopamine. People who have substantia nigra dysfunction will get Parkinson's/
sulci
grooves located between the gyri in the cerebrum
sympathetic pathway
part of ANS responsible for the body's response to stress and shock
temporal lobe
the portion of the brain that plays an important role in hearing and memory
thalamus
the part of the diencephalon that processes most sensory input and influences mood and general body movements, especially those associated with fear and rage
vagus nerve
the cranial nerve (X) that provides motor functions to the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx ............. PARASYMPATHETIC STIMULATION
ampulla of Vater
opening in the duodenum into which the common bile duct and pancreatic duct drain
bile
a digestive enzyme produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder
carboxypeptidase
a pancreatic enzyme that digests proteins
cecum
the blind sac at the beginning of the large intestine
chief cells
cells in the stomach mucosa that produce pepsinogen, an important enzyme in the digestion of food
cholecystitis
symptoms of cholelithiasis or gallstones
cholecystokinin
a hormone produced in the intestine that stimulates the production of pancreatic secretions and gallbadder contraction and inhibits gastric motility
chyme
a semiliquid mass formed in the stomach by churned food and digestive juices
chymotrypsin
a pancreatic enzyme that digests proteins
crypts
tubular glands located in the colon which contain many mucous-producing goblet cells
cystic ducts
the route through which the gallbladder releases bile
disaccharidases
enzymes
diverticuli
weakened areas (outpouchings) in the walls of the colon
esophageal hiatus
an opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes
esophageal sphincters
two muscular rings (upper and lower) that regulate the movement of material into an out of the esophagus
flatus
gas within the colon
fundus
the bottom of a hollow organ
gastric inhibitory peptide
a hormone that inhibits both gastric secretion and motility
gastric pits
numerous pits in the stomach mucosa; also called invaginations
gastrin
a hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the stomach that increases stomach secretions as well as the rate of gastric emptying
gastritis
an inflammation of the stomach caused by overproduction of stomach acid by the parietal cells
gastroesophageal opening
the opening from the esophagus to the stomach (cardiac sphincter)
goblet cell
cells that produce a protective mucous lining
haustra
recesses in the colon caused b contractions of the teniae coli
hemorrhoidal plexus
large veins that line the inside of the anal canal
hepatoportal system
a specialized portion of the circulatory system that directs blood from the intestine through the liver for processing
hiatal hernia
a weakening of the esophageal hiatus that allows the stomach to move above the diaphragm and may cause acid reflux
HCl
an acid produced by parietal cells in the stomach that aids in digestion
ileocecal junction
where the ileum and the large intestine connect
intrinsic factor
the chemical substance produced by parietal cells that is important in the absorption of vitamin B12
lacteal
a capillary and lymph channel contained in each villus
lipases
pancreatic enzymes that break down fat
mesenteries
parts of the peritoneum that hold the abdominal organs in place and provide a passage way for blood vessels and nerves to get to the organs
omental bursa
a cavity created by a double fold of mesentery, which extends inferiorly from the stomach
parietal cells
cells in the gastric mucosa that produce hydrochloric acid
parotid gland
one of the three salivary glands
pepsin
the enzyme formed from the exposure of pepsinogen to hydrochloric acid that is important in the intitial breakdown of proteins
pepsinogen
an enzyme produced by the chief cells that is converted to pepsin by hydrochloric acid
peptic ulcer disease
a condition in which parts of the stomach and duodenal lining are eroded by stomach acid
peptidases
enzymes that breakdown proteins
Peyer's patches
intermittent patches of lymph nodes located in the ileum
plicae circulares
circular folds that run perpendicular to the long axis of the digestive tract and increase the surface area for absorption
pyloric sphincter
the thick ring of smooth muscle that surrounds the pyloric opening (stomach-small intestine)
retroperitoneal space
an area behind the parietal peritoneum that contains
rugae
thick folds of the stomach wall
secretin
a hormone produced by the duodenum that inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates the production of alkaline pancreatic secretions
serosa
the outer lining of the bowel
submucosa
the lining next to the mucosa in the GI system that contains blood vessels and lymphatic channels
teniae coli
a portion of the longitudinal muscle layer of the wall of the large intestine that encircles the colon
trypsin
a pancreatic enzyme that aids in the digestion of proteins
villi
fingerlike projections in the plicae circulares
acute urinary retention
a complete obstruction of urinary flow sometimes caused by an enlarged prostate
afferent arteriole
structures that supply blood to the glomerulus
aldosterone
a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands that increases the rate of sodium and water resorption from the distal tubules back in the blood
angiotensin II
a form of kinin that plays a role in blood pressure maintenance by causing vasoconstriction and sympathetic activation and by stimulating the adrenal gland to increase the production of aldosterone
ADH
a hormone released by the pituitary gland that causes the kidney to reabsorb more water into the blood and excrete less urine
basal metabolic rate
baseline metabolic rate of the body, or energy required to maintain the normal functions at rest
Bowman's capsule
a thin, double walled chamber that surrounds the glomerulus..The glomerulus is the filter and the bowman's capsule is the bowl...
calyces
large urinary tubes that enter the renal pelvis from the kidney tissue
cystitis
a bacterial infection of the bladder and its urinary contents
diabetes insipidus
a condition often caused by pituitary dysfunction that is associated with the production of large volumes of dilute urine and in which patients experience intense thirst
distal convoluted tubule
one of two complex secretions of a nephron, it empties urine into a collection duct which then takes to the calyces
facilitated diffusion
an energy requiring process that aids in the movement of particles through gradients
filtration slits
gaps in the glomerular capillaries that filter blood and produce urine
glomerulus
a semipermeable capillary filter located within the bowman's capsule in the nephron
glycogen
storage form for glucose in the liver
hypothalamus
the part of the brain reponsible fo the maintenance of homeostasis including control of body temperature, fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, it produces adh
juxtaglomerular apparatus
structure formed by two groups of specialized cells, the macula densa and the juxtaglomerula cells, that plays an important role in fluid balance
loop of henle
U-shaped portion of the renal tubule that extends from the proximal to the distal convoluted tubule
macula densa
specialized tubular cells in the juxtaglomerular area that play a part in regulating the volume status of the body
medulla
the inner portion of the kidney issue
micturition reflex
a spinal reflex that causes contraction of the smooth muscle of the bladder, allowing for urination
oxidative phosphorylation
the production of ATP, which takes place in the mitochondria during cellular respiration
proximal convoluted tubule
one of two complex sections of a nephron, it includes an enlargement at the end called "Bowman's capsule"
ptyalin
salivary enzyme that splits starch into maltose
pyelonephritis
a potentially severe bacterial infection of the renal pelvis, medulla, and cortex
renal corpuscle
a structure formed by the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
renal papilla
the tip of each renal pyramid
renal papilla
is the point where the renal pyramids empty urine into the calyces
renal pyramids
conical shaped tissues of nephrons
renal sinus
a cavity formed by the hilum that is filled with fat and connective tissue
renin
a hormone produced by cells in the juxtaglomerular apparatus when the blood pressure is low
renin-angiotensin system
system located in the kidney that helps to regulate fluid balance and blood pressure
vasa recta
tubules, leading from the arterioles in the glomerulus, that play an important role in the concentration of urine
allele
a single gene contributed by one parent for any particular charcteristic
amniotic membranes
the placenta and membranes that surround and protect the developing embryo
ampulla
a pouch in the vast deferens at the prostate gland
autosomes
a type of chromosome that carries genes that code for numerous body proteins in both sexes
chromatin
protein matter in which chromosomes are contained within a cell
corpus cavernosus
the erectile tissue found in the clitoris and penis
corpus luteum
the remnants of an unfertilized graafian follicle allowed to be sloughed during menstruation
corpus spongiosum
erectile tissue that surrounds the male urethra
dartos muscle
a layer of cutaneous muscle within the scrotum that contracts during cold weather, causing the skin to become firm and wrinkled
diploid
the total number of chromosomes in a mature human cell
efferent ductile
the pathway through which sperm leave the testicle
embryoblast
the inner group of cells within a zygote that develops to become the embryo
embryonic period
the period of gestation between weeks 3 and 8 in which all major organ systems begin to develop
endometrium
the innermost layer of the uterine wall which is further divided nto the deep basal layer and the functional layer
epididymus
a long coiled to that extends from the efferent ductile in the testes
estrogen
a hormone released from the ovaries that stimulates the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle
fimbriae
long thin finger-like processes at the end of the fallopian tubes that surround the ostium
FSH
follicle stimulating hormone-a hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland at roughly monthly intervals that helps to stimulate one one oocyte to undergo meiosis
gamete
sex cell that contains one half of the total chromosome compliment of the mature cell
genomes
chromosomal content
genotype
the genetic composition of a given trait
GnRH
gonadotropin releasing hormone- a hormone released from the hypothalamus that stimulates uterine lining during menstruation
graafian follicle
a mature or developed ovum
haploid
the number of chromosomes (23) carried on each sex cell of the body
heterozygous
an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
homologous chromosomes
similar chromosomes in a pair, each acquired from a different parent
homozygous
an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
hCG
human chorionic gonadotropin- a hormone that stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone during the first 8 weeks of gestation
infundibulum
the space formed in the peritoneum by the distal end of the fallopian tubes
LH
luteinizing hormone- a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland on an almost monthly basis to help one oocyte undergo meiosis
menarche
the first menstrual cycle
mesovarian
the peritoneal fold that helps hold the ovaries in place
oocyte
the precursor to a mature egg
ostium
the opening in the infundibulum formed by the fallopian tubes
phenotype
the observable characteristics of an organism that result from genetic composition and environmental factors
polygenic disease
the genetic component of a multifactorial disease
prepuce
a structure in the female external genitalia where the labia minora unite over the clitoris
progesterone
a hormone secreted by the ovaries that stimulates uterine lining during the menstrual cycle
pudendum
the female external genitalia, also called the vulva
seminiferous tubules
the area of the testes where sperm is produced
testosterone
a male hormone responsible for secondary sex characteristics
trophoblast
the outer group of cells in a zygote that develop to become the placenta
vestibule
the space in which the vagina and the urethra open
zygote
a fertilized ovum
acromegaly
gigantism-excess production of GH
addisonian crisis
acute adrenocortical insufficiency
adenohypophysis
anterior pituitary lobe
adrenal cortex
the outer layer of the adrenal gland, it produces hormones that are important in regulating water/salt balance of the body
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone- one of several molecules derived from a common precursor, proopiomelanocortin, that is essential for the development of the cortex of the adrenal glands and the secretion of corticosteroids
aldosterone
hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that is important in the regulation of water and salt balance in the body
alpha cells
produced in the islets of langerhans that secrete glucagon
androgens
male sex hormones
androstenedione
a steroid sex hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, testes, and ovaries
ADH
antidiuretic hormone- secreted by the posterior pituitary lobe of the pituitary gland, it constricts blood vessels and raises the blood pressure, also called vasopressin
beta cells
cells in the islets of langerhans that secrete insulin
beta-endorphins
proteins that have the same effects as opiates such as morphine
calcitonin
a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland that is most important in the regulation of calcium
Conn's syndrome
a condition that results in the excess secretion of aldosterone, most commonly caused by a benign tumor
corticosteroids
any number of steroids secreted by the adrenal gland
cortisol
the most important corticosteroid secreted by the zona fasciculata, it is your stress response hormone
cushing's syndrome
excessive production of cortisol-moon face, abnormal hair growth, obesity, high BP, and emotional disturbances
diabetes insipidus
a disorder of the pituitary gland that results in large volumes of dilute urine, lack of ADH
diabetes melllitus
circulatory- a condition that results from impaired production of insulin by the pancreas
exopthalmos
an abnormal protrusion of the eyes resulting from hyperthyroidism
feedback inhibition
negative feedback. ex. insulin production
FSH
follicle stimulating hormone- hormone that regulates the production of both sperm and eggs, as well as production of reproductive hormones
glands
a cell, group of cells, or an organ that selectively removes, concentrates, or alters materials in the blood and secretes them back into the body
glucocorticoids
hormones secreted by the zona fasciculata that play an important role in metabolism and inhibit inflammation
gonadotropin-releasing hormone
hormone released by hypothalamus that influences the release of LH and FSH
hormone sensitive lipase
an enzyme that is activated by glucagon, it breaks triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol
hCG
human chorionic gonadotropin- one of three major female hormones, it is produced by a developing embryo after inception
hyperparathyroidism
a condition that results from a loss of calcium from the bones as well as an increase in serum calcium levels
hypocalcemia
low calcium due to loss of parathyroid function
hypothalamohypophyseal portal system
a specialiazed set of blood vessels that carry releasing factors from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary lobe
infundibulum
the stalk that connects the hypothalamus with the pituitary gland
luteinizing hormone
LH- hormone that regulates both the production of sperm and egg as well as reproductive hormones
medulla
inner portion of the adrenal glands where epi and norepi are produced
mineralocorticoids
hormones produced in the zona glomerulosa that are important in the regulation of water/salt balance
neurohormones
secreted by the posterior pituitary including oxytocin and ADH
neurohypophysis
posterior pituitary lobe
osmoreceptors
specialized receptors in the brain that regulate the secretion of ADH
parafollicular cells
cells located between the follicles in the thyroid gland that produce the hormone calcitonin
parathyroid hormone
a hormone produced and secreted by the parathyroid, it maintains normal levels of calcium in the blood and normal neuromuscular function
positive feedback
production of hormone continues after desired effect accomplished. ex.-bleeding cessation
progesterone
produced by the ovaries, it is one of three major female hormones
prolactin
hormone that plays a major role in milk production in women
prostaglandins
a group of hormone-like fatty acids that are produced in many body tissues, including, uterus, brain and kidneys
somatomedins
proteins produced in the liver, skeletal muscle, and other tissues that are stimulated by growth hormone
somatostatin
hormone released by hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of growth hormone. aka GHRIH
somatotropin
(GH) -hormone that stimulates growth in many tissue, especially long bones in the extremities
tetraiodothyronine
T4- one of twohormones secreted by the thyroid gland, it is essential for normal growth an development for children as well as body metabolism
thyroglobulin
a protein to which thyroid hormones are bound
thyroid
gland at base of neck secretes hormone that regulate growth development, and metabolism
thyroid stimulating hormone
TSH- thyrotropin- hormone that controls the release of TH
thyroxine-binding globulin
a protein synthesized in the liver that binds T3 and T4
vasopressin
ADH
zona fasciculata
one of three divisions of the adrenal cortex, it produces corticosteroids
zona glomerulosa
one of three divisions of the adrenal cortex, it produces mineralocorticoids
zona reticulares
one of three divisions of the adrenal cortex, it secretes relatively weak androgens
apocrine sweat glands
coiled tubular glands that usualyy open into hair follicles of the axillae, genitalia and anus
eccrine sweat glands
merocrine sweat glands distributed all over the body to promote cooling
eleidin
granules within stratum lucidum that are formed keratohyaline and are eventually transformed to keratin
full-thickness burns
burns involing the hypodermis and possibly bone, muscle, or internal organs, also called third degree burns
keratohyalin
a precursor to keratin that is located within the stratum granulosum of the epidermis
lunula
the white crescent shaped structure at the base of the nail body
merocrine sweat glands
sweat glands that produce a solution containing salt and urea that is secreted directly onto the surface of the skin through pores
stratum corneum
the outer layer of the epidermis, which contain about 25 layers of dead cells that continuously shed and push upward
stratum germinativum
the innermost layer of the epidermis
stratum granulosum
the layer of epidermis between lucidum and spinosum that contains keratohyalin
stratum lucidum
the first inner layer of the epidermis only in thick epithelium-palms and soles
stratum spinosum
between startum granulosum and startum germinativum which have keratinocytes which produce keratohyaline, a precursor to keratin