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116 Cards in this Set

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Gabriel Prosser
He failed in leading Virginia slaves in revolt against slavery in the year 1800
Gabriel Prosser's plan failed due to
1) a terrible storm washed out the brides and roads in the city, 2) someone then betrayed him
what was Gabriel's revolt plan?
His plan was to capture the arsenal, take over Richmond, then other cities in the state. Virginia would then become a free state
What happened to Gabriel and etc.
They were captured, tried, and hanged.
Significance of Eli Whitney
His cotton gin made the production of cotton highly profitable as an export, increasing the odds against fighting slavery
The effect of cotton gin on slavery was that, ...
Slaves who might have been set free by self-purchase,good service, or the good will of the masters were instead sold to plantions in the Lower South
"sold down the river"?
sold to plantions in the Lower South
Maria Stewart
a free black woman and an abolitionist p172
which states were the "old" states?
Virginia, Maryland, N. Carolina and S. Carolina (VMC)
Adeline Cunningham
an ex-slave from Texas who pg 172
What was the great paradox of slavery in the beginning of 1800?
As slavery became more entrenched, as more families were separated and freedom became less attainable, it actually got better in terms of physical treatment. Work was still backbreaking, but diet, murder, personal time improved. Once it was no longer possible to bring lsaves from Africa, slaveholders were forced to treat the slaves better
Pro-slavery argued that, ...
Slaves were childlike, in need of direction. Slaves were lazy people, who would not work unless forced to. Slaves were a different species. In short, slavery was a necessary evil.
William Harper
Chancellor of the University of South Carolina. Pro-slavery. Argued that slavery was good for black people, and good for the nation. Denied brutality of slavery
Bible Defence of Slavery
1853 Propaganda. Argued that slavery benefitedfrom slavery.
The slaves worked on an average day __ hours in the summer and __ hours in the winter
14, 10
House slaves was physcially easier but
mentally taxing.
Only __ of all slaves lived on plantations with more than 50 slaves
one quarter
Edwin Eppes
On his Louisiana Plantation, at sundown, cotton was weighed, and no matter how much cotton they had picked, they could be whipped. p178
Solomon Northup
a kidnapped slave, who told that, at sundown, cotton was weighed, and no matter how much cotton they had picked, they could be whipped
___ attended to the overall day-to-day and season-to-season strategy of plantation work, and ____ black drivers were on-the-spot disciplinarians
white overseers, black drivers
Daniel R. Hundley
A pro-slavery southerner who admired and defended slavery. But he admitted that the overseers were cruel
George Skipwith
a black driver for John Cocke, a virginia planter, was very liberal with the whip
it was advantageous use black drivers because:
they lived with the slaves and was familiar with the slaves outside of work
Slave codes in the south,
defined slaves as property, stated that slaves could not travel w/o a pass, or assemble in groups, buying and selling goods, carry arms. White could not teach slaves how to read, sell things to or from slaves
Slaves parents told their children waht stories
Br'er RAbbit, the Wolf, and Tar Baby
These stories taught the children life lessons such as:
quick-wittedness was an essential survival trait, deception could give the weak control over the strong, might did not always make for right, the slave world was unpredictable
Slave families were good for the slave owners because ___, and good for the slaves because ___.
Produced slave children and slaves less rebellious. Gave a poitn of reference that did not begin and end with the master, gave people roles as parents, siblings, etc.
Louis Highes
He stood helplessly, watching his master choke his wife his wife for talking back to the mistress
The slaves's sacred world was reflected in
song, music, religion, and folk beliefs
Slaveholders tried to use religion as a tool to ___
more fully dominate the lives of their slaves
Slave music, regligion, and fold beliefs were __
gave slaves a sense of independence, a kind of reedom, and forms of resistance
"The fugitive's song"
It was composed in 1845 as a tribute to Frederick Douglass, who had escaped from slavery in 1833 to become a revered abolitionist, newspaper editor, and lecturer
Slaves who were in ___ had a better chance of escape
Upper South, close to cities
Edward Covey
A man widely known for his ability to break unruly slaves. Fred Douglass was sent to him.
What's a deeper significance of Fred Douglass' physical victory over Edward Covey (won the fight)?
He conquered his own fear, regained his spirit, and became resolved to escape slavery
Examples of individual acts of resistance:
steal extra food, fought back to avoid whipping, fought their sexual abusers, burned barns, truancy, "played the fool",
slave patrols
groups of white males, usually of the lower classes, called together to look for runaways, to prevent slave gatherings, and generally ensure the safety of the white community
John Brown
p 193. Georgia slave who ran away several times before finally succeeding. Each time he was captured, whipped, and chained.
Aunt Cheyney
A slave who ran away and were killed by her masters dogs who serached for her.
Henry "Box" Brown
He literally mailed himself to freedom. He was carried for 27 hours from Richmond to Philadelphia by Adams Express in a box. p 194
Ellen Craft
She was a light-skinned slave who Escaped slavery by pretending to be a sickly white man travelling in the company of his slave, who was in fact her darker-skinned husband. She even converse with slaveholders about the trouble of runaway slaves
Harriet Tubman
She was called "Moses." She escaped from slavery. It was said that she returned 19 times and rescued more than 300 slaves. Planters offer a $40,000 bounty for her capture
Underground Railroad
This network of hiding places run by opponents of slavery provided the slaves food, shelter, money, clothing, and disguise
William Still
p 195. An officer of the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee, was the movign force behind the Underground Railroad.
In general, women had a harder time escaping than men because ___
they were more reluctant to leave w/o their children. At the same time, it was teh fear of losing them that often provided the incentive to flee
Truancy
It is short-term flight. Women practice truancy more than men did because they needed to care for their children. Females also have less opportunity to travel off the farm/home
Abroad marriage
a union between slaves who lived on different farms
"played the fool"
A technique employed by slaves in order to avoid doing some onerous chore. They would smile humbly and pretend to misunderstand instructions given by the master.
3/4 hands, 1/2 hands, 1/4 hands
Women, especially those of child bearing age, could pretend to be sick to do less work
it was said that slave women used ______ to bring about miscarriage
herbs, roots and seeds of cotton palnt, cedar berries
Dr. John H. Morgan
a Tenessee physician who wrote that slave women used herbs and berries to bring about miscarriages
infanticide
It hurt the women more, emotional and physically (punishment), than it hurt the masters
Charles Deslondes
Leader of an uprising in 1811 of about 400 slaves in the Baptist parishes in Louisiana. They sent whites feeing their plantations in New Orleans
Black people faces hopeless odds, such as
outnumbered by whites, grouped in small numbers on plantations that were miles apart, whites had the guns
uprisings with Seminole Indians
1817, 1818, and 1835 uprisings. In 1817 and 1818, Blacks joined the Seminole Indians in their fight to keep their Florida homes. They raided plantations in Georgia, killing whites and carrying off slaves. In 1835, blacks joined the Seminoles in their unsuccessful fight against the militias of Florida, Georgia, and Tenessee.
Seminole lands
Seminole lands were havens for runaway slaves. By 1830, blakcs and indians had intermarried to teh extent they were indistinguishable.
Pres. Andrew Jackson
He was determined to eliminate Seminole indians and seize their lands for white slaveholders
Denmark Vesey
He was a literate and free black carpenter. He bought his freedome in 1800. He planned to capture Charleston with his followers. They were betrayed in 1822.
1800
Gabriel Prosser's attempt to seize Richmond, and the year he died. Denmark Vesey bought his freedom. Nat Turner was born
Peter Poyas
One of Vesey's lieutenants
Nat Turner
He believed himself to be the Moses who would lead his people out of bondage. He led 70 slaves on a killing spree of white people in Virginia. Nat and his men were captured and killed.
consequence of black rebellions
Whites lashed out mercilessly at blacks. Anyone suspected of aiding rebellion was put to death. Blacks were not allowed to hold religious services or gather in groups at all.
April Ellison
A mulatto expert cotton gin maker, He bought freedom for himself, his wife and daughter. He established a business, hired 2 slaves, and gained permission to worship with whites, away from the slaves and free blacks.
Elizabeth Hobbs/Keckley
An attractive mulatto and a highly skilled and popular seamstress. Her customers offered to lend her money to buy herself and her son out of slavery. She bought herself, her husband, James Keckley, and her son out of slavery. She moved to Washington and her clients were among the city's elite, such as Lincoln's wife. She learned to read and write
Sojourner Truth
A dark-skinned woman. Unlike Ellison and Keckley, she was illiterate. She was freed in 1827 by NY state law. She was a preacher, an abolitionist and an eloquent public speaker for women's right.
the free black population number ___ in 1790 and grew to ___ by the eve of the civil war
59,000 --> 488,000
Free black population increased due to
blacks born of free mothers, including white women with black partners, free mulattos immigrants from the West indies, especially those who fled Haiti after the 1790 slave revolt led to L'Ouverture
Free slaves chose their new names that reflected their:
complexion (brown), occupation (mason), or names of liberty (freeman, justice), practicality (Ellison)
William Ellison, formerly April Ellison, chose his master's last number in order
for his cotton gin manufacturing business to be asscoiated with the wealthy planter
identification badges
p 202. both freed blakcs and slves were required to wear id badges.
2 advantages Wlilliam Ellison had
1. indispensable cotton gin making skills, 2. light skinned
Free blacks in rural south faced unfavorable circumstances because they were not attached to plantations as carpenters, blacks smiths, etc, so they tried to grow and sell crops, but..
whites charged exorbitant amounts for rental of land, and slaves had to either be in debt or sign labor contracts
1822 Charleston petition
says "mulattoes were a barreir b/w our own color and that of the black."
Light color signified ___
a birth connection to a white person, and so also possible protection
Cities provided free blacks ___ job and a black network of churches, schools, etc
unskilled jobs
Antebellun whites feared free blacks because:
1. take away jobs, 2. worked toward abolition, contradict the arguement that blacks can't survive w/o white supervision, 3. threatened cotton profits
whites ___ to work alongside blacks
refused
Laws that restrained rights of free blacks
forced to carry certificates of freedom, register with authorities, pay taxes, prohibit migration of free blacks, curfews for gatherings, exclusion from theaters and public parks
of all the southern states, only __, __, and __ gave free blacks right to vote, but by 1835 those rights have been repealed
Maryland, Tennessee, and North Carolina (MTNC)
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
outlawed slavery in NW states, but Illinois, Indiana, and Oregon (IIO) actually excluded black migrants altogether
conditions for free blacks were probably the best in the __ region of america
Northeast
Paradoxically, Economic opportunities increased for free blacks in the south because:
there were less skilled and unskilled white laborers and white employers were accustumed to hiring blacks
Free black urban women faced stiff competition from:
white women of lower classes, immigrant women from Ireland
Rights that free blacks have that slaves do not:
marry, read and write, give birth to free children, freer religious practices,
Absalom Jones's Free African Society
indepedent black church that many whites objected to
Black churches are important because:
it's a corner of life that is unhindered by whites, black churches build schools, conduct self-help activities, offers leadership positions, offer Sunday schools
Brown Fellowship Society of Charleston, the Friendly Moralist Society, the Humane Brotherhood
limited membership. Members paid dues. Money is used for sick benefits, burial expenses, and stipends for widows and orphans of members. For the care of some of the poor among Charleston's free black population
Benevolent societies were notable because they were organized around:
color (mulattoes). Brown and Friendly are for mulattoes ony. Human Brotherhood was limited to 35 dark men.
Light complexioned blacks had a better chance of surviving and succeeding than dark-complexioned blacks did because:
their relatives gave them advantage, education, whites felt less threatened
Factors that helped with success besides light skin:
literacy, trade/profession, white connections
The wealthier the blacks, the ___ his religioius denomination
emotional (methodist --> episcopal)
freedom's journal
first published in NYC in 1827. they preached a gospel of moral purity
North Star
Fred Douglass's newspaper - signified black aspirations
American Anti-Slavery Society
founded by blacks and whites, it held religious revival-style meetings that condemned slavery
Liberty Party
1840 and 1844 it ran anti-slavery presidential candidates. did not attract a big following
the anti-slavery alphabet
published in 1847 for an anti-slavery fair. used simple rhymes to expose children to the horrors of slavery
Absalom Jones
African Methoidist Episcopal minister who led anti-slavery protests
why did blacks celebrate New Year's Day as Independence Day
anniversary of Haitian independence and end of foreign slave trade in U.S.
Constitution is bad because:
international slave trade continued for 20 years,, slaves are 3/5 of a person
fugitive slave law 1793
track down fugitive slaves and return them by the government
gag rule
all abolitionist petitions were tabled
American Colonization Society members
Pres. Madison, Jackson, Francis Scott Key
ACS argued that:
Africa is the natural home of black pple, blacks would never be accepted in America, AA would transform Africa into properity and form new trade relationship
Liberia
"land of freedom"
counter colonization arguments
African tribes, African diseases, America was their country
Most AA leaders felt that colonization
was a scheme to protest slavery and preserve freedom for whites only
Walker's Appeal
David Walker - meet violence with violence
Maria Stewart
education would uplift the AA's
Martin Delany
Go to Africa, harvard-educated physician, politically in africa
weekly advocate
phillip bell - black separatis, - OUR CAUSE
racial solidarity was necessary to
secur etheir status as full-fledged americans
Compromise of 1850
brought CA in as a free state, Fugitive Slave Law - special commisioner who was paid to retunr a slave to an owner than set him free, compelled northerners to catch fugitive slaves
ecnomic success generated
confidence and how they responded oppresion
Eliz. Jennings
conductor wrestled her to the ground for sitting in the white section. she took her case to court and won
Harriet Beecher
uncle tom's cabin
Dred scott decision
blacks had no rights that whites need to respect