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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The scapula ranges between what vertebrae?
What is Tuffier's line? What does it cross?
An invisible line that connects the topes of the iliac crests. It crosses the L4-L5 junction.
What vertebrae does the spinal cord end at?
L1 or L2
What causes scoliosis?
Being born with an extra part of a vertebrae
What is exaggeration of the lumbar curvature called?
What is exaggeration of the thoracic curvature called?
What is spina bifida?
A neural tube defect marked by congenital cleft of the spinal column usually with hernial protrusion of the meninges and sometimes the spinal cord
What is the name of the joint between an upper and lower articulating vertebrae?
Zygapophysial joint
What is the name of the lip of the lateral body of a cervical vertebrae that forms a lateral joint?
Uncinate process
What artery is the first branch of the subclavian artery?
How much of the brain's blood supply do the right and left vertebral arteries supply?
About a third
What is between the superior articular and inferior articular process?
The pars interarticularis
What is spondyloisthesis?
The forward displacement of a lumbar vertebra on the one below it and especially of the 5th lumbar vertabra on the sacrum, producing pain by compression of nerve roots
What is the name of the canal that is created by S4 and S5 not fusing in the midline?
Sacral hiatus
Why is the intervertebral foramen an artificial foramen?
Because a true foramen is a hole through one bone, while the intervertebral hole is formed by 2 vertebra
What is ALL and where is it located?
Anterior longitudinal ligament; runs from the sacrum to the base of the skull. It prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column
What is PLL and where is it located?
Posterior longitudinal ligament; runs within the vertebral canal along the posterior aspect of the vertebral bodies, attaches to the base of the skull (this articulation is known as the tectorial membrane)
What does the PLL do?
Inhibits hyperflexion of the spine and disc herniation
What ligament is located on the underside of the lamina?
Ligamentum flavum
What does the ligamentum flavum do and become?
It helps restore hyperextended and hyperflexed spinal columns to the neutral position. It becomes the posterior atlanta-occipital membrane
What membrane does the vertebral artery pass through?
The posterior atlanto-occipital membrane
What is the name of the synovial, plane joints that occur between the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebrae?
Zygapophysial joints
What innervates the zygapopphysial joints?
Articular branches that arise from the medial branches of the posterior rami of spinal nerves
Where does the nuchal ligament attach?
The external occipital protuberance and posterior border of the foramen magnum to the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae
How much of our height do the intervertebral discs account for?
one fourth
what are the 2 portions of the intervertebral discs?
the outer annulus fibrosis (cartilaginous) and the nucleus pulposus
what is the name of the elaborate venous system that drains the spinal cord? what's special about it?
Batson's plexus, it's valve-less
what's the arterial blood supply to the posterior vertebral column?
aorta and vertebral artery
what muscle is known as the swimmer's muscle and what are it's functins?
latissimus dorsi, adduction, internal rotation, and extension
what does the serratus posterior inferior attach to and function in?
the ribs and breathing
what is the trianlge of petit bordered by?
latissimus dorsi, the iliac crest, and the external abdominal oblique muscles
what is the triangle of auscultation bordered by?
the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and scapula or rhomboid muscles
what 3 muscles border the suboccipital triangle?
superior posterior oblique, inferior posterior oblique, and rectus capitus major
what are the functions of the superior and inferior oblique muscles?
lateral rotation of the atlas on the axis
what are the functions of the superior major and minor rectus capitus muscles?
extension posteriorly of the neck and head
what is the nerve that emerges through the suboccipital triangle?
the suboccipital nerve
the suboccipital nerve is made up of?
the dorsal ramus of C1, which only has a motor component, not a sensory component (therefore it doesn't have a dorsal root ganglion)
what nerve emerges below the inferior oblique and passes superiorly through the suboccipital triangle onto the base of the skull?
the greater occipital nerve
what innervates the muscles of the suboccipital triangle?
the lesser occipital nerve from C3 and C2
what are the divisions of the iliocostalis?
lumborum, thoracis, and cervicis
what are the divisions of the longissimus?
thoracis, cervicis, and capitis
what are the divisions of the spinalis?
thoracis, cervicis, and capitis
what innervates the erector spinae muscles?
the dorsal rami of spinal nerves
what is the arterial supply for the erector spinae muscles?
the posterior intercostal arter, which is a branch of the intercostals which are segmental arteries coming off the descending aorta
what is the name of the deepest muscles of the back, and where do they generally run to/from?
the transversospinalis - they run from the transverse processes to the spine
what are the muscles of the transversospinalis group?
the semispinalis, the rotatores, and the multifidous
what are the divisions of the semispinalis?
capitis, cervicis, and thoracis
where does the splenius capitus insert?
the occipital bone inferior to the superious nuchal line
where do the rotatores attach?
from the transverse processes to the spines
where do the multifidi attach?
between 2 individual vertebrae