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29 Cards in this Set

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What significance does the Encyclopedie have in the Enlightenment period?
It has a central place as an instrument of the Enlightenment.
Who are the compliers of the Encyclopedie?
Diderot and d'Alembert with the participation of Voltaire, Rousseau and many others.
Where and when was the Encyclopedie published?
France in 1751 - 1772
What did the Encyclopedie consist of?
28 volumes plus 11 volumes of plates.
How many articles does the Encyclopedie contain?
72000 articles.
What was the Encyclopedie's main purpose?
It was sought to summarise all of human knowledge systematically
What was the Encyclopedie's other purpose?
Its and questioned established practices and attacked both the monarchy and the Catholic church
What did the writings of the French philosophies aim to do?
Challenge the established values of 18th century France which formed the bases for Enlightenment thought
Who was Voltaire?
1694 – 1778
The leading writer of the French Enlightenment
Rejected - all that was based on intolerance, tyranny, and superstition
Criticized - religious tradition and beliefs
Why – needed to be based on reason
Presentation of views - wittily in a series of short stories and novels
Most famous - Candide.
How would you briefly describe the Encyclopedie to someone who had never heard of it?
Multi-volume collection
Published in France
2nd half of the 18c
By Diderot / d’Alembert
Contained: Articles by many philosophies
Contained: Factual information on knowledge
Contained: many more subjects
Why was the Encyclopedie so controversial in its time?
Criticised
Established
- values
- beliefs
Of Old Regime in France
What significance did the advances in medicine play during the Enlightenment period?
The key to the truth about nature
The acquisition of empirical knowledge (observed, pragmatic, experienced)
Why was inoculation not officially permitted in France at the time of writing?
Inoculation was forbidden by the Catholic church as interference with the ill of God. This disapproval was expressed by the faculty of theology at the Sorbonne (University of Paris).
What was the most famous 18th c surgical operations?
Lithotomy - removal of bladder stones
In what sense were the classics familiar to men and women of the Enlightenment?
'- formed The bases of their education and general culture
- The grand tour
- Samples evident in stately homes
What did the Enlightened thinkers have the tendency to do with regards to the classics?
Surround themselves with images of roman heroes e.g. Hadrian (117-38 ce) and Marcus Aurelius (161-80 ce)
Why did the Enlightened thinkers have the tendency to do what they did with regards to the classics?
classical antiquity provided a powerful alternative to biblical and ecclesiastical authority of contemporary Europe (of or relating to church)
How far did men and women of the Enlightenment share Winkelmann's infatuation with the classics?
Educated people of the Enlightenment almost without exception considered classical literature and works of art to be the unrivalled peaks of artistic perfection and modelled their own standards of tasks on them. (unmatched, unsurpassed)

Philosophes were also inspired because of their achievements; such achievements were not evident under the existing Old Regime of France.
Who is the leading art critique and historian during the Enlightenment with regards to the classics?
Johann Joachim Winkelmann
What was JJW's famous line with regards to the classics?
'- classical characteristics
- calm grandeur and noble simplicity in gesture and expression
- to be great…
- is through imitation of the ancients
How do you account for the attraction of the myth of the noble savage for men and women of the Enlightenment?
Striking combination of freedom and happiness
Demonstrates the inherent goodness of human nature
Visit to south sea and visit to Britain by Omai
-lend substance to myth
-attracted uncritical acceptance
Why were the Encyclopaedists hostile to the slave trade?
Savage excesses and cruelty
Denied inherent dignity as human being
Contrast by the 2 Africans who succeeded in Britain
What aspects of Fredericks's enlightenment emerge from section 5 of the video?
'- His promotion of mass inoculation against smallpox
- His repeal of harsh penalties against infanticide and a more understanding attitude towards unmarried mothers (the killing of an infant)
- His respect for classical antiquity
- An interest in non-European culture
- Religious toleration
- Open mindedness
What has been said about Frederick the Great?
A king by duty and a Philosophes by inclination
Few rulers of that time who put thought into action
What did Frederick the Great call himself?
The Philosophes of San Souci
Who did Frederick the Great have huge correspondence with?
The Philosophes: Voltaire, Condorcet and d’Alembert
Where is San Souci, the home of Frederick the Great?
Berlin
What was San Souci, the home of Frederick the Great filled with?
Roman Heads
Which of the Philosophes wrote a book which Frederick the Great admired and said it could be read and reread?
Voltaire’s Candide