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95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hypotension has a mean BP of ____ for 20 min
BP < 60 for >20 min
PaCO2 measures ventilatory status fo the patient. The normal value is ___________ mm Hg
35 - 45 mm Hg
Hyperventilation is a PaCO2 of:
less than 35 mm Hg
Hypoventilation is a PaCO2 of:
greater than 45
What is the only anesthetic agent approved by FDA for fish?
tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222)
Anterior Uveitis is:
inflammation of the anterior uveal tract (iris, ciliary body, choroid)
What is the least heptatoxic benzimadozole?
Pyrantel pamoate
What is the cause of Anthrax?
Bacillus anthracis; REPORTABLE, ZOONOTIC
S1 heart sound:
signals closure of AV valves and start of systole
S2 heart sound:
signals closure of semilunar valves and end of systole
S3 heart sound:
heard if increase in venous return; pregnancy
S4 heart sound is associated with:
atrial contraction and immediately precedes S1
What are four supraventricular tachycardia arrhythmias?
Atrial premature contractions, paroxysmal atrail tachycardia, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation
Irregularly irregular:
atrial fibrillation
Describe Atrial fibrillation on ECG
no demonstratable P waves on any lead
Taurine defiency in cats cause what cardiac disease?
What coccidia are found in poultry
Eimeria and Cryptosporidia
What coccidia are found in small animals
Isospora and Cryptosporidia
What coccidia are found in large animals (cows/sheep/goats/pigs)
Eimeria and Cryptosporidia
What age are pigs infected and showing clinical signs of coccidiosis
at 5 - 15 days old
What is the treatment of choice for cocciodomycosis
amphotericin B
What is a diagnostic method for diagnosising coccidosis (best/better)
impression smear of intestine more diagnositic than fecal exam
What are the factors involved in the intrinsic pathway
factors 12, 11, 9, and 8
A factor 8 deficiency leads to:
hemophilia A
What is the most common bleeding deficiency in dogs and cats
hemophilia A, is X-linked, females are asymptomatic, males are affected
What does a deficiency in factor 9 lead to
Hemophilia B
What are the Vitamin K dependent factors
2, 7, 9, 10
Vitamin K antagonism or deficiency is associated with what? (5)
1. rodenticide tox (warfarin, coumarin)
2. malabsorption
3. BTO
4. heriditary
5. hemorrhagic porcine stress syndrome
What tests coagulation factors for the intrinsic system? extrinsic system?
intrinsic system: APTT and ACT
extrinsic system: PT
Club foot is caused by:
contracture of the deep digital flexure tendon
Bacillary Hemoglobinuria is caused by:
C. haemolyticum; in cattle, aka red water dz
Black leg is caused by?
C. Chauvoei (also septicum, novyi, sordelli)
Botulism is caused by:
C. botulinum
hemorrhagic enteritis adn enterotoxemia is caused by:
C. perfringens
Infectious necrotic hepatitis is caused by:
C. novyi and liver flukes, a.k.a. Black disease

*C.novyi infection is pathologic with liver liver fluke migration causing necrotic liver*

Control- reducing intermediate host, snail (Lymnaea spp) and vax with Cl. novyi toxoid
Malignant Edema is caused by:
C. septicum (also chavoei, perfringens, sordelli, novyi)
Characterize chylothorax
accumulation of chylous fluid in the pleural space: high triglyceride concentration with a low cholesterol
Describe the bands on the colon of equine:
4 bands: cecum, RVC, LVC
1 band: LDC, pelvic flexure
3 bands: RDC
When colic is due to SI causes there is either strangulated or nonstrangulated causes. What are examples of both?
strangulation: SI torsion, SI volvulus, strangulating lipoma
nonstrangulation: ileal impaction, proximal enteritis
When colic is due to LI causes there is either colonic torsion or impaction. What are examples of each?
colonic torsion: nephrosplenic entrapment= L dorsal displacement or tangled with cecum= R
impaction: transverse colon, pelvic flexure, ileocecal valve
Enteroliths as a cause of colic affects what breed(s) and due to mainly what feed?
Arabians, alfalfa hay
What breeds are affected with COLOR DILUTE ALOPECIA?
congenital defect in blue dobies, chows, and chihuahuas
Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome is an inherited defect of immunity in ? amd describe
Arab foals; autosomal recessive- lack of immunoglobulin synthesis, absence of cell-mediated immunity, thymic hypoplasia, and marked reduction of lymphocytes

- foals are normal at birth dt maternal antibioties, until they decline; then foals succumbs to succession of respiratory infections
How is CID diagnosed?
precolostral serum samples have no detectable IgM antibody and lymphocyte count < 1000 cells/ml in peripheral blood
Congenital hyperlipidemia is an inherited disease of what breed of dogs?
miniature schnauzers
Sore Mouth is caused by:
poxvirus; aka Contagious Ecthyma, Contagious Pustular Dermatitis, Sore Mouth, Orf
What are the CS seen in males affected with CEM?
What are the CS seen in females affected with CEM?
mare develop endometritis with vulvar discharge 2-6 days after service; low conception rate (fertility regain after infection subsides), abortion uncommon
What is the etiology and treatment of Contagious Equine Metritis?
Taylorella equigenitalis and is self limiting
Cu deficiency can be caused by:
1. decreased Cu in soil
2. increased Mo (S)
3. increased Fe
What CS can be seen in lambs with Cu deficiency?
* Swayback*
unthiftiness, achromotrichia, diarrhea, lameness, demyelinization, falling disease
What is the treatment and prevention of Cu deficiency?
TX: copper glycinate injections every 6 mos SQ; cu sulfate in feed; cu oxide needle bolus
PX: salt/trace mineral mixes with Cu; CuSO4 fertilizer
What type of hemolysis will be seen with Cu poisoning?
intravascular hemolysis
What is the recessive inherited copper storage disease in Bedlington Terriers?
Cu Storage Hepatopathy of Bedlington Terriers
What is the DOC for the treatment/management of Cu Storage Hepatopathy of Bedlington Terriers; what other agent(s) can be used
Penicillaminine; Trientine can be used (oral Cu chealating agent, less adverse affects than penicillamine)
What claw is affected with "Corkscrew Claw" in cattle?
defect of the lateral claw causes serious lameness; must trim continuouslly.
What does corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis do in horses? in sheep/goats?
horses: causes pectoral abscesses (seasonal- late summer and fall)
sheep/goats: Caseous Lymphadenitis
What is crotalaria?
group of plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids; causing liver damage in horses
What are the cranial nerves with parasympathetic functions?
CN III, VII, IX, X, XI (3, 7, 9, 10, 11)
What normal accompanies a cranial cruciate ligament rupture and how do you dx?
medial meniscal tear w/ "clicking noise"; dx with cranial drawer sign
Characterize Cryptococcus neoformans
encapsulated fungal organism found in soil, and pigeon droppings; yeast with narrow based budding and thick, clear mucin capsule
What clinical features are seen in dogs? and cats? with Cryptococcosis?
dogs: CNS signs, granulomatous chorioretinitis
cats: Roman nose; swelling or draining fistula over facial bone, chronic nasal discharge
TX for Cryptococcosis:
Amphotericin B(alone or in combo with flucytosine, ketaconazole, fluconazole if in CNS
What stain can be used for CSF fluid? what morphology will be seen with Cryptococcosis?
INdia ink; see clear vacuoles
What is the treatment for Nasal mycosis caused by the most common cause?
common cause- normal inhabitant of the nasal cavity, aspergillus fumigatus
TX: Enilconazole- admin twice daily into nasal cavity; Itraconazole can also be used
ketaconazole, thiabendazole, fluconazole are less affective
What is the cause of Flat Calf Syndrome; commonly seen in beef and dairy calves of 1-3 weeks of age?
Cryptospoidium parvum, ZOONOTIC (causes diarrhea in human, kill immunocomprised)
What is CURB?
spraining and thickening of the plantar tarsal ligament
On clinical pathology, what can be seen with Cushings?
eosinopenia, neutrophilia, increased SAP
What is Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?
Cutaneous Asthenia; in herited defects in collagen production w/ dermatosparaxis (torn skin)
How do you treat Cyanide poisoning (cherry red blood; bitter almond odor)?
sodium nitrate, sodium thiosulfate, IV Methylene Blue

*Dx: Picrate paper test- filter paper with ruminal contents- turn red - positive
MOA of cyclophosphamdie; adverse effects?
alkylating agent which interfers w/ DNA replication, RNA transcription and replication (disrupts nucleic acid fxn)

Adverse effects: myelosupression, gastroenterocolitis, hemorrhagic cystitis (rare in cats, 1/3 of dogs)
What are the two phase of cytauxzoon felis?
tissue phase(large schizonts) and erythrocytic phase(piroplasm)
Cytauxzoon felis is transmitted by:? and what is the most important reservoir host?
Dermacentro variablis ticks; bobcats

definitive host are spp of Felidae, including domestic cats, bobcats, and Florida panthers
What type of anemia is seen w/ Cytauzoon felis infection?
Normocytic normochromic anemia with leukopenia and pronounced lymphopenia
inflammation of the lacrimal sac
what is the daily water requirement for small animals?
What is the method of choice for dehorning goats?
hot iron debudding
American dog tick and what does it transmit?
Dermacentor variabilus; transmits RMSF, tularemia, anaplasmosis (mice)
How do you treat Demodectic mange in the cat? in the dog?
dog- Amitraz (mitoban- yohimbine will reverse), also invermecting, milbemycin given daily

cats- lyme sulfar dips once a week for 6 weeks; MITOBAN WILL KILL CATS (do not use)
Dermatophilosis is caused by:
Dermatophilus congolensis in equine; ZOONOTIC
Dermatophilosis is treated by:
remove and destroy crusts, povidone iodine shampoo
What cause Dermatophytosis in the following spp:
cattle/sheep/goats- Trichophyton verrucosum
Horse- Trichophyton equinum
Pig- Microsporum nanum
Dog- (70%) Microsporum canis, M.gypsum (in soil), Trichophyton mentagrophytes
Cat- (98%) Microsporium canis
Treat Dermatophytosis:
griseofulvin (teratogenic) and lime sulfar dip; oral lufenuron

can consider topicals
What are four insulin antagonists?
growth hormone
What is Diaphragmatic Flutter and what is is caused by?
Synchronous Diaphragmatic Flutter"Thumps" (in equine)

violent, unilateral hiccoughs occur w/ each heartbeat due to stimulation of the phrenic nerve by cardiac electrical discharge
Why should clients NOT graze horses with donkeys?
b/c donkeys, mules, and asses are inapparent carriers of the equine lung worm: Dictyocalulus arnfieldi

Dx w/ baermans
What is the #1 foot disease of dairy cattle?
Hairy Heel Warts, Digital Dermatidis
What is Digital Dermatidis in cattle caused by?
where is the most common lesion?
what is treatment?
Treponema, most affected in rear, tx with oxytetracycline long term
What organisms are commonly isolated with Diskospondylitis?
MC- Staphylococcus intermedius/aureus, Brucella canis (ZOONOTIC potential), aspergillosis
The demonstration of what virus specific immunoglobin is diagnositic for Distemper virus?
Ig M
What is the african veneral disease of horses caused by Trypansoma equiperidum?