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57 Cards in this Set

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cytoplasm
the gel-like substance serving as the foundation of the cell and it contains the largest cellular body, the nucleus
the two major groups of cells
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
histone proteins
provides a supportive framework for the DNA
nuclear envelope
a double-membrane structure consisting of two double layers of phospholipid, double that in the plasma membrane
ribosomes
any of the RNA and protein rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis
organelles
specialized microscopic bodies within the cytoplasm
flagella
long, hairlike organelles providing movement for such cells as sperm cells
cilia
hairlike organelles that are shorter and more numerous than flagella.
cytoskeleton
an interconnected system of fibers, threads, and interwoven molecules giving structure to the cell
main components of the cytoskeleton
microtubules microfilaments intermediate filaments;

structure:

thin rods and tubules

function:

provides support to cytoplasm and help move objects within the cytoplasm
Golgi body
a cytoplasmic organelle that consists of a stack of smooth membranous saccules and associated vesicles and that is active in the modification and transport of proteins to other organelles
endoplasmic reticulum
structure:

network of interconnected membranes consisting of sacs and canals

function:

protein synthesis, membrane synthesis
mitochandria
structure:

membranous sacs with inner partitions

function:

site where energy released from food molecules and ATP synthesized
lysosomes
structure:

membranous sacs

function:

contains enzymes for intracellular digestion
centrosome
structure:

nonmembranous structure composed of two rodlike centrioles

function:

helps distribute chromosomes to daughter cells during cell reproduction and initiates formation of cilia
vesicle
structure:

membranous sacs

function:

contain various substances being transported within the cell
nucleolus
structure:

dense, nonmembranous body composed of protein and RNA

function:

contains materials to form ribosomes
chromatin
structure:

fibers composed of protein and DNA molecules

function:

contains genetic information for protein synthesis
cell membrane
structure:

membrane composed mainly of protein and lipid molecules

function:

maintains shape of cell and controls passage of materials into and out of cell
plasma membrane
a semipermeable limiting layer of cell protoplasm consisting of a fluid phospholipid bilayer with intercalated proteins. It separates the cell from the external environment.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
when ribosomes are present on the endoplasmic reticulum. the region where some protein synthesis occurs in the cell where the amino acids are chemically linked together to form proteins
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum with no ribosomes. it is the site of lipid and membrane synthesis and calcium storage
vacuole
a cavity or vesicle in the cytoplasm of a cell containing fluid
centriole
one of a pair of cellular organelles that are adjacent to the nucleus and function in the formation of the spindle apparatus during cell division and consist of a cylinder with nine microtubules arranged peripherally in a circle
glycolipid
a lipid that contains a carbohydrate molecule
six mechanisms for molecular movement across the cell membrane
diffusion
osmosis
facilitated diffusion
active transport
endocytosis
exocytosis
diffusion
characteristics:

movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration

example:

diffusion of oxygen from lung into capillaries
osmosis
characteristics:

diffusion of water

example:

reabsorption of water from kidney tubules
facilitated diffusion
characteristics:

diffusion assisted by carrier protein

example:

diffusion of glucose into red blood cells
active transport
characteristics:

movement of molecules from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration assisted by carrier protein and energy from ATP

example:

reabsorption of salts from kidney tubules
endocytosis
characteristics:

membrane engulfs substance and draws it into cell in membrane-bound vesicles

example:

ingestion of bacterium by white blood cells
exocytosis
characteristics:

membrane-bound vesicle fuses with cell membrane, releasing its contents outside of cell

example:

release of neurotransmitters by nerve cells
semipermeable membrane
a membrane that lets only certain molecules pass through
solute
a chemical substance that is dissolved in water
hypertonic
a solution that has a higher (salt) concentration
hypotonic
a solution that has a lower salt concentration
crenation
shrinkage of red blood cells
isotonic
cells having the same salt concentration inside and out
phagocytosis
when endocytosis involves particulate matter
pinocytosis
when endocytosis involves droplets of fluid
exergonic reaction
any chemical reaction in which energy is released
endergonic reaction
energy that is obtained from some other source and stored in some form
enzymes
proteins that speed up chemical reactions while themselves remaining unchanged
substrate
a substance that is acted on by an enzyme molecule
end products
products of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
metabolic pathway
a sequence of chemical reactions occurring in a cell
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a chemical substance that serves the body as the immediate energy currency for virtually all cells
what are the three parts of an ATP molecule
adenine
ribose
phosphate units
adenine
a double-ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
ribose
a small 5-carbon carbohydrate
cell cycle
the repetition of cellular growth and reproduction
interphase
the period during which the cell performs its unique functions
mitosis
the period of the cell cycle during which the DNA of the nucleus of the cell replicates and separates into two daughter cells
cytokinesis
the process in which the cytoplasm divides and two separate cells form
three types of RNA
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
transfer RNA (tRNA)
messenger RNA (mRNA)
prokaryotes
cells that lack a nucleus, internal cellular bodies (organelles) and do not divide by the process of mitosis.

Includes bacteria.
eukaryotes
cells that have a nucleus, internal cellular bodies and divide by the process of mitosis.

Includes plants, animals and humans.