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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of the heart
generates blood pressure, helps to regulate blood flow
Size of heart
2 fists held together
Location of heart
mediastinum
Base
top of heart, with large vessels
Apex
bottom of heart, points down and to the left, at 5th intercostal space (ICS) and midclavicular line (MCL)
Pericardial sac
structure that protects the heart, serous membrane w 2 components/membranes
Parietal pericardium
outer membrane on heart
Visceral pericardium
membrane that touches the heart.
Epicardium
outermost heart wall
Pericardual fluid
fluid in between visceral and parietal pericardium
atria
2 upper chambers, left and right, responsible for receiving blood from body or lungs
auricles
flaps
ventricles
2 lower chambers, receive blood from their respective atria
septa
inner walls of the heart
AV valves
atrioventricular, found in the atrio-ventricular septum
2
tricuspid
right atriventricular valve
bicuspid
left atrioventricular valve
Function of valves
prevent backflow of blood
Chordae tendenae
off av valves, prevent backflow of blood
2 semilunar valves
pulomary semilunar valves (to lungs), aortic semilunar valve
pulmonary trunk
large diameter, takes blood to lungs
Veins
take blood back to heart
Arteries
take blood away from heart
Vena cava
largest arteries
Superior vena cava
brings blood back from body above diaphragm
Inferior vena cava
brings blood back from body below diphragm
Pulmonary veins
bring blood back from lungs to heart
2 circuits of blood flow
systemic
pulmonary
Systemic circuit
heart out around body and give it back, left ventricle to right atrium
pulmonary circuit
right ventricle to left atrium.
blood flow
sup. v.c.→tricuspid valve→pulm. s.l. valve → pulmonary trunk/arteries→lungs→pulmonary veins→left atrium→bicuspid→left ventricle→aortic s.l.valve→ aorta→arteries→capillary beds→grow to vena cava→ back to sup v.c.
Function of blood (4)
1. transport blood, waste, etc.
2. helps maintain pH balance
3. Helps maintain temperature
4. helps with hemostasis
Composition
plasma and formed elements
plasma
liquid, 55% of blood, contains solutes/ions
formed elements
cells or fragments of cells, 45%
platelets
red and white blood cells and cell fragments
3 types of plasma proteins
albumen (draw/attract water by osmosis), fibrinogen (clotting), globulin (transport, immunity)
Hematocrit
composition of blood, 55% plasma, 45% formed elements
red blood cells
biconcave disks, anucleated
5 mil RBC per pinhead drop.
Fx of RBC
carry oxygen- protein hemoglobin loads up with oxygen, can carry CO2
last about 4 months
White blood cells
intact, nucleated, larger
7,500 per pinhead drop
Fx of WBC
immunity, fighting cells
Types of WBC
Granulocytes (dots present)/Agranulocytes (dots not present)
Types of granulocytes
1. Neutrophils: fighters, bacterial infections, most abundant
2. eosinophils: allergic reactions, parasites
3. basophils: inflammatory/injury situations, least abundant
Types of agranulocytes
1. lymphocytes: specific fighters, viruses
2. monocytes: general fighters, larger, can engulf and phagotycize larger entities
Eurythrocytes
Red blood cells
Leukocytes
White blood cells
platelets
fragments of cells (350,000 per pinhead drop) formed from megakaryocytes, have irregular edges that help with clotting process
hemocytoplast
master blood cells, all cells come from it
Hemostasis (3 steps)
blood clotting process
1. vascular spasm: decreases diameter of vessel which slows doen blood flow, platelets stick.
2. platelet plug formation: not very solid, need fibers, fibrinogen (inactive)
3. blood clotting: fibrinogen, fibrin helps solidify platelet clot
Blood grouping (4)
A B AB O
antigens
proteins of surface of RBC
Type A (antigens)
have A antigens
Type B (antigens)
have B antigens
Type AB
have A and B antigens
Type O
has neither A or B antigens
Antibodies
fight against foreign bodies
Type A (antibodies)
has B antibodoes in plasma
Type B (antibodies)
Has A antibodies in plasma
Type AB (antibodies)
has neither A or B antibodies present in plasma
Type O (antibodies)
has both A and B antibodoes present in plasma
Hemolysis
breaking down
Agglutination
clumping
rh factor
rhesus factor (proein
+ rh protein present
- reh protein not present
may develop antibodies with exposure to + blood (mother to child)
Hemolytic disease of newborns
breakdown of rbs b/c of mother's antibodies beign exchanged w/ fetus rbc
Thrombus
clot formed in vessel
Embolus
when clot gets free and travels through blood stream
hemophilia
lack of clotting factor
anemia
low red blood cells, low O2
polycythemia
high rbc, makes blood thick
leukemia
cancer, high wbc, body wears out and lowers wbc count
Electrical activity
what keeps the heart beating
electrical pathway
SA node (pacemaker)→AV node→ bundle of His→ R/L bundle branches→purkinje fibers
SA node
bundle of cells, sends messages through atrial myocardia, atria contract at the same time
AV node
passes impulse throught bundle of His then to R/L bundle branches
Perkinje fibers
allow for ventricles to contract at the same time
Cardiac cycle
time
3 components
2 terms
8 sec.
systole/diastole
atrial systole/ventricular systole/ventricular diastole
Systole
contraction
Diastole
relaxation
Atrial systole
contraction of atrium, rids atria of blood, pushes it into ventricles, av valves open
ventricular systole
AV valves close/prevents backflow, semilunar valves open as ventricles contract
ventricular diastole
passive atrial filling, when pressure in atria is greater than in ventricles, av valves open, allows passive filling of ventricles
Heart sounds (2)
1. lub- 1st, louder, longer. AV valves closing
2. dub- 2nd, shorter, quieter. semilunar valves closing
Cardiac output
volume of blood out of left ventricle per minute
Cardiac output formula
stroke volume x heartrate
CO= H.R. x S.V.
72 x 70 mL/beat= 5,040 mL/min. 5 L per min.
Intrinsic factors that regulate C.O.
inside heart
exercise, ↑ blood ↑ stretch of walls (w/exercise)
↑ stroke volume
↑ hr
Extrinsic factors that regulate C.O.
outside heart
1. neurological: sympathetic div. of ans ↑ h.r., parasyp. div. lowers h.r.
2. chemoreceptors (chemical)/baroreceptors (pressure)
Fx of circulation (4)
1. carry blood
2. exchange blood
3. transport blood
4. maintain BP/Blood flow (w/ heart)
3 types of blood vessels
arteries, capillaries, veins
Arteries
always carry blood away from heart. thicker because of tunica medie and under higher pressure(aorta)
Capillaries
for exchange, network of emaller diameter components
Veins
thinner than arteries, carry blood back to the heart (vena cava), has less tunica media, lower pressure blood.
3 tunics (layers)
all 3 found in veins and arteries
1. tunica media or interna- touches blood
2. tunica media- muscular (smooth)
3. tunica externa- outermost
Tunica intima
simple squamous epithelium
endothilum and connective tissue
Tunica media
smooth muscle
Tunica externa
conective tissue for ease of exchange
Capillary bed
network, thin walled vessels, spread out for ↑ surface area, easy exchange.
Veins- specializations in tunica intima to fight gravity and low pressure
1. valves in tunica intima (pockets)
2. skeletal muscle contractions to milk blood ↑
3. difference in pressure between abdominal and thoracic cavity with breathing. w breath abc. cav press is greater thatn thoracic cav. pressure
Blood pressure
the measure of force on blood vessel walls
systolic
ventricular contraction, highest amt. of force on blood vessel wall (top #)
diastolic
ventricular relaxation, lowest amt. of force on blood vessel wall
pulse
pressure waves from LV contraction, should be equal bilaterally
Heart attack
coronary thrombosis, when coronary vessels are blocked, can't deliver blood or O2 to the myocardia
infarc
death of dissue
Pace maker
provide artificial electrical stimulation
Varicose veins
pooling of blood in veins, no valves
Aneurisms
weakening of blood vessel walls, can rupture
high blood pressure
hypertension, stress dietary or genetically related
Factors that affect BP (3)
1. cardiac output ↑= ↑ BP
2. ↑ blood vol. = ↑ BP
3. ↑ peripheral resistence = ↑ BP
Peripheral resistence
friction on vessel wall
Fx of Lymphatic system
1. fluid balance- picks up excess fluid
2. fat absorption
3. immunity
Lymph
fluid inside lymphatic system
spleen
LUQ located posterially, serves as a filter for blood or stores it
tonsils
help to protect against materials from outside, line respiratory and digestive pathways
thymus
behind sternum in mediastinum. produces and processes lymphocytes (immunity)
lymph nodes
filter lymph, for immunity
lymphatic vessels
start as blunt ended vessels in capillary beds, lead to heart
lacteal
for fat absorption, lymphatic capillaries
edema
swelling, lymphatic mm not picking up fluid
allergies
body's response to antigens, unable to get rid of antigens, they become allergens body can't get rid of.
lupus
autoimmune disorder, body fights against itself, genetic.
Skin redness, low grade fever, fatigue and arthritis.