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89 Cards in this Set

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What are the 3 parts that maintain homeostasis?
1. Sensor
2. Integrating center
3. Effector
What is the normal mg/dl content of blood glucose?
70-110
What organ regulates insulin? What organ system is it in?
Pancreas, Endocrine
What 2 things can cause hypoglycemia? What is another name for it?
Dysfunctional pancreas and overdose and insulin, Diabetes
List the 5 levels of organization in anatomy
1. Chemical
2. Cellular
3. Tissue
4. Organ
5. System
What is the study of tissue called? What are the 4 types of tissue?
Histology
1. Epithelial
2. Nervous
3. Connective
4. Muscle
Name the 11 organ systems
Cardiovascular, digestive, muscular, urinary, respiratory, nervous, skeletal, lymphatic, reproductive, endocrine, integumentary
What organs make up the endocrine system? (6)
Pancreas, thyroid, pituitary, adrenals, ovaries, testes
What 4 elements make up the human body?
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon
Which elements make up proteins?
C, H, O, N
What % of a human body is made up of water?
60%
Why does chlorine kill bacteria?
Because it is a very unstable element. (7e in outer shell)
What are the names of + charge ions and - charge ions?
Cations (+)
Anions (-)
What is one function of Na+ in the body?
Impulse Conduction
What is the condition called where fat is clogged in the blood vessels?
Atherosclerosis
Name 5 examples of molecules in the body that are polar covalent?
Water, Glucose, Amino Acids, Vitamin C and B
Name 4 ways your body loses hydration?
Sweat, Urine, Diarrhea, Vomit
What organ in your body balances electrolytes?
Kidneys
What is a lethal injection composed of ?
K+
What is the formula for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP
Name 4 factors that affect rate of chemical reactions
1. Concentration of reactants
2. Temperature
3. Size of particles
4. Presense of enzymes
Name 5 uses of water in the body
Chemical reactions
Movement of electrolytes
Waste removal
Blood
Temperature regulation
How are minerals used/lost in the body?
Lost by urine!
Electrolytes, building structures, Ca++ - bones, Fe+2 - Blood
What are micronutrients?
Vitamins, Minerals
Which Vitamins are fat-soluable?
A, D, E, K
Do vitamins have calories?
No
What is another name for Vitamin B9? What is it used for?
Folate, Folic Acid.
Helps DNA synthesis.
What vitamins are water soluable?
B, C
Which vitamins can be stored, water or fat soluable?
Fat soluable
What elements make up carbohydrates?
C, H, O
What are the 3 different types of carbohydrates?
1. Monosaccharides
2. Disaccharides
3. Polysaccharides
What are the three forms of monosaccharides?
1. Glucose
2. Galactose
3. Fructose
What carbohydrate does the brain run on? What are 2 other names for it?
Glucose - Blood sugar or Dextrose
What is another name for "simple sugar"?
Monosaccharide
What carbohydrate makes sweet corn sweet?
Fructose
Name 3 Disaccharides
1. Sucrose
2. Lactose
3. Maltose
What carbohydrate is found in potatoes? What is another name for it?
Starch, Amylose
What carbohydrate is found in oats? What does it break down into?
Maltose, Glucose (2 molecules)
Name 3 polysaccharides
1. Starch
2. Glycogen
3. Cellulose
What is another name for cellulose?
Fiber
Where is glycogen stored in our bodies?
Liver, skeletal muscles
Which carbohydrate is used mostly for sustained energy?
Starch (Amylose)
What does sucrose break down into?
Glucose and Fructose
What is the technical name for table sugar?
Sucrose
How many amino acids are proteins made up of?
20
How many calories/gram are in proteins?
4
How does your body get amino acids?
Some are made in your body, some you have to ingest.
List 12 functions of proteins.
Muscles, hair, nails, mucus, ligaments, antibodies, cell membranes, clotting factors, pigments, hormones, energy, enzymes
What is a protein's quaternary structure?
How multiple proteins are bound together
What is a protein's tertiary structure?
How a chain folds on itself due to H bonds.
What is your bloods normal pH? Is it acidic or alkaline?
7.40, alkaline
How many cal/gram in lipids?
9
What elements are fats consisted of?
C, H, O
List 5 functions of fats
1. Energy
2. Protection
3. Insulation
4. Myelin
5. Flavor
Name the 3 classes of lipids
1. Triglyceride
2. Phospholipids
3. Sterols
What is a fatty acid consisted of?
Hydrocarbon chain
What is a triglyceride consisted of?
3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol
Name 3 types of fatty acids
1. Saturated
2. Mono-unsaturated
3. Poly-unsaturated
Which fatty acid comes from coconut oil?
Saturated
Which fatty acid comes from soybean oil?
Polyunsaturated
Which kind of fatty acid comes from corn oil?
Polyunsaturated
Which kind of fatty acid comes from animal fat?
Saturated
Which kind of fatty acid comes from corn oil?
Polyunsaturated
What is a phospholipid consisted of?
Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + polar phospho group
What phospholipid in your body helps mix polar and non-polar molecules for digestion?
Bile
What is it called when Polar and Non-polar molecules are mixed?
Emulsified
Name 5 functions of sterols?
1. Cell membrane stability
2. Vitamin D
3. Hormones
4. Myelin sheath
5. Nuerotransmitters
What condition is caused by too much cholesterol?
Atherosclerosis
How many base pairs does a human DNA strand have?
3 billion
Name 4 functions of ATP
Movement, Active Transport, Heat, Protein synthesis
What element is crucial for ATP to be useful?
Oxygen
What is the difference between plant cell membranes than animal cell membranes?
Plants have fiber and no cholesterol
What is the movement of particles across a membrane called?
Diffusion
What is the difference between pinocytosis and phagocytosis?
Pinocytosis engulfs already broken down particles, Phagocytosis engulfs full particles
Where are microvilla found in the human body?
Kidneys, Intestines
Name two places cilia are found in the human body?
Trachea, Oviduct
What two molecules does the mitochondria need to form ATP?
Glucose, Oxygen
What kind of cells have lysosomes?
White blood cells
What takes place in the ribosome?
Protein synthesis
What's the difference structurally between the rough ER and smooth ER?
Rough ER has ribosomes
What takes place in the rough ER?
Packaging and synthesis of proteins
What happens in the smooth ER?
Detox and Lipid synthesis
Which organ has a lot of smooth ER in it's cells?
Liver
Which cellular organ is involved w/ spindle fibers?
Centrioles
What does the Golgi Apparatus do?
Pachage and secrete proteins and lipids
What is the cytoskeleton composed of?
Protein filaments and tubules
Which body cell does not have a nucleus?
Red blood cells
How many chromosomes does the human body have?
46
Which cells in your body constantly undergo mitosis?
Blood cells, epithelial