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310 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
above, along the long axis, toward the head
superior (cranial)
below, along the long axis, toward the tail
inferior (caudal)
front, most forward bellyside
anterior (ventral)
back, toward backside of body
posterior (dorsal)
toward the midline
medial
away from the midline or medial
lateral
nearer the trunk or attached end
proximal
farther from the trunk or point of attachment
distal
toward or at the body surface
superficial (external)
away from the body surface, inside
deep (internal)
Describe the anatomical position
body is erect, feet slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward, arms hanging at sides, palms facing forward
Body Plane: down the median line but not center
para sagittal
Body Plane: down te center
mid sagittal; right and left
Body Plane: longitudal, divides into anterior/postior parts
frontal (coronal)
Body Plane: horizontal, dividing superior & inferior parts
transverse (horizontal, cross section)
orbital
eye
buccal
cheek
cervical
neck
throacic
chest
axillary
armpit
brachial
arm
umbilical
naval
abdominal
abdomen
antecubital
front of elbow
inguinal
groin
femoral
thigh
pubic
genital
scapular
shoulder blades
lumbar
loin
gluteal
buttocks
popliteal
back of knee
sural
calf
occipital
back of head or base of skull
deltoid
back of shoulder
cubital (olecranal)
back of elbow
Head, Neck and Trunk form what body region?
axial region
Appendages or limbs form what body region?
appendicular region
This region consists of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis
Trunk (torso)
Total magnification is computed by
multiplying the ocular magnification by the objective magnification
Scanning power is ___x
4
Low power is ___x
10
High power is ____x
40
Oil immersion is ____x
100
Composed of all atoms and molecules necessary to maintain life
chemical level
cells are made of molecules
cellular level
consists of similiar types of cells
tissue level
made of up different types of tissue
ogran level
consists of different organs that work closely together
system level
made up of the organ system
organism level (human)
Which organ system is responsible for providing an external body coverin and protection?
integumentary (skin)
The diaphragm muscle forms the floor of a cavity located inside the rib cage. This cavity is the
thoracic
The large cavity below the diaphragm is named the
abdominal cavity
Which organ occupies almost all of the space in the cranial cavity?
the brain
In what cavitity is the spinal cord located?
vertebral and dorsal
Where are the internal reproductive organs located?
pelvic cavity
Adenine binds with
Thymine
Cytosine binds with
Guanine
Where in the cell is DNA located?
nucleus
Where does replication occur?
in the nucleus
When you have two molecules and each one has an "old" strand and a "new" strand, this is called what?
semi conservative replication
or DNA replication
The diaphragm muscle forms the floor of a cavity located inside the rib cage. This cavity is the
thoracic
The large cavity below the diahragm is named the ____ cavitity
abdominal
Which organ system is responsible for providing an external body covering and protection?
integumentary (skin)
Which organ occupies almost all of the space in the cranial cavity?
the brain
In what cavitity is the spinal cord located?
vertebral and dorsal
Where are the internal reproductive organs located?
pelvic cavitity
DNA provides a linear arrangement of genes which are located within the _____ coiled with proteins and called _____
nucleus
Chromatin (DNA & protein)
Describe the shape of DNA
double stranded polymer
sides: sugar phosphate
rungs: nitrogenous bases
Adenine binds with _____
Thymine
Cytosine binds with _____
Guanine
Where in the cell is DNA located?
nucleus
Where does replication occur?
nucleus
When you have 2 molecules and each one has one "old" strand and one "new" strand, this is called what?
semi conservative or DNA replication
The enzymes that add nucleotides to te new growing DNA chain are ___
DNA polymerase
Transcription is the process of taking the genetic message from the _____ to the ______
nucleus
cytoplasma
RNA is different from DNA in:
1.
2.
3.
1. single stranded
2. sugar ribose (instead of deyoxyribose)
3. base is uracil (instead of thymine)
Translation uses the information carried on the RNA to assemble _____ chains, and when finished these chains become _____
polypeptide
protein
Building block of nucleic acids; consist of sugar, a nitrogen-containing base & a phosphate group
nucleotide
A, G, T, C, U
nitrogenous bases
A (adenine) and G (guanine)
purines
C (cytosine) T (thymine) U (uracil)
pyridines
DNA is what?
deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid found in all living cells, carries the organisms hereditary information
barlike bodies of tightly coiled chromatins; visiable during cell division
chromosomes
Makes up 60% of chromatin
histone
What determines the order of amino acids in the polypeptide chain?
DNA codons
codon is what
3 nucleotides
rRNA
ribsomal RNA
tRNA
transfer RNA
mRNA
messenger RNA
Transcription is also known as what
protein synthesis
fundamental unit of chromatin; consists of a strand of DNA wound around a cluster of 8 histone proteins; also called chromatid (genetic material)
nucleosome
structures in the DNA that carry the hereditity factors; made of DNA and protein
chromatin
a chain of amino acids
polypeptide
complex substance containing carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen; composes 10-30% of cell mass
protein
organic compound containing carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen; building block of protein
amino acid
transfer; short chain RNA molecules that transfer amino acids to the ribosome
tRNA
messenger; long nucleotide strands that reflect the exact nucleotide sequence of the genetically active DNA and carry the message of the latter
mRNA
ribosomal; a constituent of ribosome; exists within the ribosomes of cytoplasma and assists in protein synthesis
rRNA
cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized
ribosome
provides an area for storage and transport of the proteins made on the ribosomes to other cell areas; has the ribosomes
rough endoplasmic reticulum
rough ER
has no function in protein synthesis, rather site of steroid and lipid synthesis, metabolism and drug detox, transfers
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
smooth ER
the 3 base sequence on a messnger RNA molecule that provides the genetic information used in protein synthesis
codon
3 base sequence complementary to the messenger RNA codon
anti codon
the cellular material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane
cytoplasma
nitrogenous base + sugar phosphate =
nucleotide
2 complementary nucleotides =
nucleotide pair
______ occurs in the nucleus, uses mRNA, and replaced T (thymine) with _____
Transcription
U (uracil)
______ occurs outside the nucleus in the cytoplasma, ____ and ____ are used
Translation
rRNA
tRNA
___RNA is found in the ribosomes during translation
r
___RNA brings in the amino acids during translation
t
Body Movement: arm raised, leg bent to the back at knee
Flexion
Body Movement: arm extended backwards, leg straight brought parallel to other leg
Extension
Flexion is opposite of
Extension
Extension is opposite of
Flexion
Body Movement: away from body (leg or arm)
abduction
Body Movement: towards body (leg or arm)
adduction
Opposite of abduction
adduction
Opposite of adduction
abduction
Body Movement: radius & ulna are parallel
supination (soup in my hand...palm up)
Body Movement: radius rotates over ulna
pronation (palm down in prone position)
Opposite of supination
pronation
Opposite of pronation
supination
Body Movement: closing of mouth (mandible)
elevation
Body Movement: opening of mouth (mandible)
depression
Opposite of elevation
depression
Opposite of depression
elevation
Body Movement: swinging leg outward
lateral rotation
Body Movement: swinging leg inward
medial rotation
Opposite of lateral rotation
medial rotation
Opposite of medial rotation
lateral rotation
Body Movement: sole of foot turns medially
inversion
Body Movement: sole of foot faces laterally
eversion
Opposite of inversion
eversion
Opposite of eversion
inversion
seperates cell contents from the surrounding environment
plasma membrane
watery environment, cellular material surrounding the nucleus & enclosed b the plasma membrane
cytoplasm
control center, necessary for reproduction
nucleus
provides an area for storage & transport of te proteins made on the ribosomes to other cell areas
rough endoplasmic reticulum
has no function in protein synthesis; rather it is a site of steroid & lipid synthesis, lipid metabolism & drug detoxification, transfers
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
tiny sperical bodies composed of RNA & protein; actual site of protein synthesis; floating free or attached to a membranous structure (rough ER) in the ctytoplasm
ribosome
found close to the nucleus; plays a role in packaging prteins or other substances for export from the cell or incorporation into the plasma membrane & in packaging lysosomal enzymes
golgi complex (apparatus)
contains enzymes that oxidize foodstuffs to produce cellular energy (ATP); power house of the cell
mitochondria
various sized membranous sacs containing digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases); functions to digest worn out cell organelles & foreign substances that enter the cell; have the capacity of total cell destruction if ruptured
lysosome
small lysosoe like membranous sacs containing oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen, peroxide & other harmful chemicals
peroxisome
located in the nucleus, small round body composed primarily of proteins & ribsomal particles, which are the actual protein - synthesizing "factories", mass of largely RNA
nucleolus
provide cellular support; function in intracellular transport, formed largely of actin, a contractile protein & thus are important in cell mobility (muscle cells)
microfilament
provide cellular support; function in intracellular transport form the internal structure of the centrioles & help determine cell shape
microtubule
paired, cyliindrical bodies lie at right angles to each other close to nucleus, direct the formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division, form the base of cilia & flagella
centriole
"eyelashes", whiplike motile cellular extensions that occur, typically in large numbers on the exposed surface of certain cells, moves substances in one direction across cell surfaces
cilium
projections formed by centrioles that are substantially longer; "tail", propels the cell itself (sperm)
flagellum
membrane bound compartment that serves a variety of secretory, excretory & storage functions, transport (bad cholestrol)
vacuole
engulf outside to bring it in, similiar to phagocytosis; below or touching cell membrane
pinocytic vesicle
onset cell division, chromatin threads coil & shorten to form these, densly staining, short, barlike,
chromosome
spreading of particles in gas or solution wiht movement toward uniform distribution
diffusion
passage of a solvent & dissolved substances through a membrane or filter
filtration
the movement of large particles & macromolecules across a plasma membrane
vesicular
substances cross membrane without engery input from the cell
passive transport
cells provide the metabolic energy (ATP) needed to move substances across membrane
active transport
Diffusion is based on
concentration gradients
Filtration is based on
pressure gradient
Relationship between molecular weight and diffusion rate is what
higher the molecular weight, the less diffusion will occur; particles are larger/heavier therefore do not move far/fast
Inside cell: +NaCl/H2O
(distilled water relationship)
Hypotonic (cell could explode)
Inside cell: -NaCl/H2O
(3% solution)
Hypertonic (cell shrinks)
Inside cell: NaCl/H20 equal
(85% solution)
Isotonic (no movement, concentrations equal)
diffusion of a solvent through a membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated one
osmosis
the spreading of particles in a gas or solution with a movement toward a uniform distribution of particles
diffusion
the unassisted transport accross a plasma membrane of a lipid-soluable or very small particle
simple diffusion
the ability of a solution to change the shape or tone of cells by altering their internal water volume
tonicity
(tono=tension)
solutions with the same concentrations of nonpenatrating solutes as those found in cells (.9% saline, 5% glucose)
isotonic
solutions with a higher concentration of nonpenatrating solute that seen in the cell
hypertonic
solutions that are more dilute, contain lower concentrations of nonpenatrating solutes
hypotonic
passage of a solvent & dissolved substance through a membrane or filter
filtration
diffusion of a solute(s) through a semipermeable membrane
dialysis
Filtration is primarily dependent on a ______ gradient
pressure
subdivision of microscopic anatomy, which considers the cells of the body
cytology
hairs
stereocilia
(page 588)
tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells; increase surface area for absorption "little shaggy hairs"
mmicrovilla
main carbohydrate stored in animal cells, a polysaccharide
glycogen
hormone formed by alpha cells of pancreatic islets, raises the glucose level of blood
glucagon
passive transport used by certain molecules (glucose, simple sugars) too large to pass through plasma membrane pores; involves movement through channels or movement with the aid of a membrane carrier
facilitated diffusion
how many DNA strands are present at the completion of replication?
2 (1 strand being composed of 2 sides and rungs)
Bonding that occurs between 2 nucleotides
hydrogen bonding
chemical bond created by electron sharing between atoms (sugar & nitrogenous base in DNA strands)
covalent bodning
1 of 2 major steps in the transfer of genetic code information involving the transfer of information from a DNA genes base sequence to the complimentary base sequence of a mRNA molecule
transcription
1 of the 2 major steps in the transfer of genetic code information, in which the information carried by the mRNA is decoded & used to assemble polypeptides
translation
RNA stands for what
ribonucleic acid
nucleic acid that contains ribose & the bases A,G,C,U; carries out DNAs instructions for protein synthesis
RNA
a smaller single ring base (pyrimidine) found in RNA
uracil
RNA uses to copy
DNA template
control center of the cell
contains genetic material
dense spherical bodies in the cell nucleus involved with ribosomal subunit synthesis & storage
nucleolus
A T G C U (rung of the DNA ladder)
nitrogenous bases
What determines the order of amino acids in the polypeptide chain?
DNA codons
Do transcription & translation occur in all cells? Explain.
Yes. all cells need protein. Transcription - Translation - Proteins
How do cells & organisms obtain biomolecules other than proteins? (Glycogen, starch, carbohydrates, lipids)
Eat & bring from the outside
a chain of amino acids
polypeptide
Mitotic cell division in animal cells involves 2 processes: a_____ b_____
a. Mitosis
b. cytokinesis
an exact duplication & division of chromosomes of the parent cell into 2 offspring nuclei, each one identical to the parent nucleus
mitosis
a division of the cell cytoplasm
cytokinesis
Mitosis & cytokinesis occur for several purposes.
a._____
b._____
c._____
a. GROWTH of an organism from a one-celled zygote to a multicellular adult
b. REPAIR of injured tissuees
c. REPLACE worn out cells
The _____ chromosomes in the nucleus contain all the information (genes) cells needed in order to function.
chromosomes
If the parent cell contains 24 chromosomes, each offspring cell will have ____ chromosomes.
24
How many chromosomes are contained within the nucleus of a human somatic cell _____? human sex cell _____?
somatic = 46
sex = 23
_____ begins during late anaphase & continues through & beyond telophase.
cytokinesis
the division of cytoplasm that occurs after the cell nucleus has divided.
cytokinesis
What process is responsible for the distribution of new organells constructed from raw material in the cell or divided from previous organelles (mitochondria), evenly between the two offspring cells?
cytokinesis
During _____ the nucleus has a grainy appearance; the grains are visible parts of the uncoiled chromosomes called _______
interphase
chromatin
During ______, the genetic material, now called ______, are tightly coiled & are visible as ribbons in the nucleus.
prophase
chromosomes
How many homologous pairs does a cell 2n=16 have?
8
How many chromosomes does a diploid cell have where n=11?
2n= 2(11) = 22
The chromosomes replicate/duplicate themselves during _____. The resulting chromatids remain attached to each other at the _____. Each chromosome is composed of 2 identical _____. The chromosome is also called a _____. The chromatids seperate in ____ and are then considered individual chromosomes again.
mitosis
centriomeres
chromatids
dyad
anaphase
1st mitotic phase, consisting of the chromosomes accompanied by migration of the 2 daughter centrioles toward the poles of the cell & nuclear membrane breakdown
prophase
2nd stage, chromosomes cluster at the middle of the cell, with their cetriomeres precisely aligned at the exact center of the spindle
metaphase
2rd phase in whic a full set of daughter chromosomes move toward each pole of a cell
anaphase
4th & final phase, begins when migration of chromosomes to the poles of the cells have been completed & ends with the formation of 2 daughter nuclei
telophase
the division of cytoplasm that occurs after the cell nucleus has divided
cytokinesis
when the center of the cell (the spindle equator) is drawn inward by the activity of a contractile ring made of actin filaments
cleavage furrow
thin strands of contractile protein actin, spindle fibers
microfilaments
small, buton like body that the chromatids of each chromosome are held together by
centromere
dyad is the same as a ______, which is 2 chromosomes
homologous pair
1/2 the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
haploid
ie: human sex cells
1n is for what type of cell
haploid
full number of chromosomes
diploid cell
human cell of muscle/tissue
2x the haploid cell is a ____
diploid
process during which the chromosomes are re-distributed to 2 daughter nuclei; nuclear division
mitosis
nuclear division process that reduces the chromosomal number by 1/2
reduction phase of Meiosis I
2nd phase of meiosis II is known as what
equational divison
The end result of Meiosis is the formation of ___
4 haploid cells
Haploid cells have ____ the chromosomes of the parent cell
1/2
chromosomes replicate but chromatids are not visible
interphase
chromatids seperate at the centromere & move toward opposite ends of the cell, attached to spindle fibers. (cytokinesis may have started here)
anaphase
chromosomes come together & uncoil. Nuclear membrane reappears. Spindle apparatus disappears. (cytokensis is occuring here)
telophase
centromeres attach to the short or kinetochore spindle fibers in the cetner of the cell
metaphase
cleavage furrow forms, separating cytoplasm.
cytokinesis
leading to DNA replication & cell division
Meiosis I
begins with products from Meiosis 1 (2 haploid daughter cells), undergoes mitosis - like nuclear division, product is 4 haploid daughter cells, genetically different from the original mother cell
Meiosis II
segregates homologous chromosomes
reductional division
segregates sister chromatids
equational division
structure within the DNA that carries hereditary factors; made up of DNA & protein
chromain
centromeres of dyad align on metaphase plaste
metaphase II
homologous chromosomes (tetrads) seperate into dyads
anaphase I
2 nuclei form with unpaired chromosomes. nuclear membranes may or may not reform. cytokinesis usually occurs
telophose
may or may not occur. chromosomes may recondense, spindle apparatus reforms in a plane perpendicular to that in Meiosis I
prophase II
chromosomes condense & form tetrads. (synapsis) crossing over occurs, nuclear membrane disappears, spindle apparatus forms. longest phase
prophase I
dyads (sister chromatids) seperate
anaphase II
chromosomes come together, nuclear membrane reforms, spindle apparatus disappears, cytokinesis occurs
telophase II
chromosomes replicate (form dyads of chromotids)
interphase
tetrads are aligned on metaphase plate with centromeres attached to spindle fibers. centromeres repel each other
metaphase I
At the end of telophase II (human cell) there are ____ haploid cells. Each cell has _____ the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
23
1/2
sperm cell meiosis
spermatogenesis
egg cell meiosis
oogenesis
In humans, spermatogenesis takes ______ weeks.
2 to 3
the outermost tubule cells, stem cells, which are in direct contact with teh epithelial basal lamina
spermatogonia
spermatogonia is a _____ cell
diploid
Type B spermatogonia; gets pushed to the lumen, destined to produce 4 sperm
primary spermatocytes
primary spermatocytes are ____ cells
diploid
2 smaller cells formed when each primary spermatocyte generated during the 1st phase undergoes meiosis I
secondary spermatocytes
secondary spermatocytes are _____ cells
haploid
daughter cells from the secondary spermatocytes continuing on rapidly into meiosis II
spermatid
spermatid are _____ cells
haploid
full sperm at the end of meiosis
spermatozoa
spermatozoa is a _____ cell
haploid
At the end of meiosis, a spermatogonia will produce ____ functioning cells.
4
At the end of meiosis, a oogonia will produce ____ functioning cells.
1
When is the oocyte released from the ovary?
ovulation
Is the oocyte mature when it is released during ovulation and has it completed meiosis?
no
no
If, & only if, _______ occurs, the second division (equatorial division) will be completed producing 2 cells of unequal size, both of them ______.
reduction division
haploid
In the female, an oogonium produces _____ ovum, where as each male spermatocyte produces ____ spermatozoa.
1
4
The female oocyte is arrested in ______ of Meiosis I prior to puberty.
prophase I
Following puberty, each month an oocyte is allowed to continue to its second arrested phase, ________ of meiosis II, in preparation for ovulation.
metaphase II
an oocyte is arrested in _____ of meiosis II indefinitely, unless it is fertilized.
metaphase II
process of ovum (female gamete) formation
oogenesis
the diploid stem cell of the ovaries, multiply rapidly by mitosis & then enter the growth phase & lay in nutrient reserves
oogonia
oogonia is a _____ cell
diploid
primoridal follids begin to appear as the oogonia are transformed into ______, begin 1st meiotic division but become stalled late in prophase I
primary oocytes
primary oocytes are _____ cells
diploid
larger cell (than the 1st polar body) which contains nearly all the cytoplasm of the primary oocyte
secondary oocytes
secondary oocytes are _____ cells
haploid
smaller cell, may undergo meiosis II, producing 2 even smaller polar bodies
first polar body
first polar bodies are ____ cells
haploid
when the secondary oocyte is penetrated by sperm it quickly completes meiosis I yielding one large ovum & a tiny _____
second polar body
second polar bodies are _____ cells
haploid
female gamete, egg that has been fertilized
ovum
ovum cells are _____
haploid
interaction of dominant & recessive alleles; mating of parents genotypes
inheritance
ones genetic make up or genes
genotype
observable expressions of teh genotype
phenotype
the branch of biology that studies inheritance
genetics
How do we acquire characteristics from our parents & transmit characteristics to our children?
crossover, each parent provides 23 chromosomes
A gene is the unit of heredity on a chromosome (section of DNA) that codes for a specific trait. What would happen if that gene were removed?
Genes can not be removed. Alleles can
The strand that is synthesized continuosly following the movement of the replication fork.
Leading strand
The strand constructed in segments in the opposite direction & requires that a primer initiated replication of each segment.
Lagging strand
The diameter of the field of view on low power is about
2mm
The diameter of the field of view on high power is 1/4 of low so it is about
1/2mm
A ____ is a structure composed of two or more types of tissues that performs a specific function for the body. An _____ is a group of organs that act together to perform a body function.
organ
organ system
the movement of large particles & macromolecules across a plasma membrane
vesicular transport
means by which fairly large extracellular molecules & particles enter cells; phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated
endocytosis
mechanism by which sustances are moved from the cell interior to the extracellular space as a secretory vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane
exocytosis
Engulfing of extracellular fluids by cells
pinocytosis
Engulfing of foreign solids by ____ cells.
phagoctosis
phagocytic
Example of secondary active transport
Na+ - K+
Na+ Glucose symport
Example of primary active transport
sodium potassium pump
haploid is always ___
diploid is always ___ of the haploid
n
2n
Slide
interphase
no dark purple
Slide
prophase
clump or ball in middle
Slide
metaphase
line in middle
Slide
anaphase
2 pulled apart
Free floating ribosomes create ____ protein
simple
Ribosomes on the rough ER produce _____ protein
complex, transported outside the cell
What created specificity of proteins?
tRNA only attaching to matching amino acid